Applicability of Equilibrium Theory of Intimacy to Non-Verbal Interaction with Robots: Multi-Channel Approach Using Duration of Gazing and Distance Between a Human Subject and Robot
Hiroko Kamide*, Koji Kawabe**, Satoshi Shigemi**,
and Tatsuo Arai*
*Department of Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
**Honda R&D Co., Ltd., 8-1 Honcho, Wako, Saitama 351-0188, Japan
-  K. Wada and T. Shibata, “Living with Seal Robots? Its Sociopsychological and Physiological Influences on the Elderly at a Care House,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics, Vol.23, No.5, pp. 972-980, 2007.
-  A. Tewari, J. Peabody, R. Sarle, G. Balakrishnan, A. K. Hemal, A. Shrivastaba et al., “Technique of a da Vinci robotassisted anatomic radical prostatectomy,” Urology, Vol.60, No.4, pp. 569-572, 2002.
-  T. Kamegawa, T. Yamasaki, H. Igarashi, and F. Matsuno, “Development of the snake-like rescue robot KOHGA,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. Robot, pp. 5081-5086, 2004.
-  M. Arai, Y. Tanaka, S. Hirose, H. Kuwahara, and S. Tsukui, “Development of ‘Souryu-IV’ and ‘Souryu-V’: Serially connected crawler vehicles for in-rubble searching operations,” J. of Field Robotics, Special Issue on Search and Rescue Robots, Vol.25, No.1-2, pp. 3165, 2008.
-  M. Fujita, “On activating human communications with pet-type robot AIBO,” Proc. of IEEE, Vol.92, No.11, pp. 1804-1813, 2004.
-  K. Suzuki, R. Hikiji, and S. Hashimoto, “Development of an Autonomous Humanoid Robot, iSHA, for Harmonized Human-Machine Environment,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.14, No.5 pp. 497-505, 2002.
-  K. Hoshino and I. Kawabuchi, “Pinching at Fingertips for Humanoid Robot Hand,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.17, No.6 pp. 655-663, 2005.
-  Y. Takahashi and M. Kohda, “Simple Humanoid Biped Robot with PIC Microcomputer for University Education,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.17, No.2, pp. 226-231, 2005.
-  N. Endo, S. Momoki, M. Zecca, M. Saito, Y. Mizoguchi, K. Itoh, and A. Takanishi, “Development of Whole-Body Emotion Expression Humanoid Robot,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2140-2145, 2008.
-  C. F. DiSalvo, F. Gemperle, J. Forlizzi, and S. Kiesler, “All robots are not created equal: The design and perception of humanoid robot heads,” Proc. of the DIS Conf., pp. 321-326, 2002.
-  B. Mutlu, T. Kanda, J. Forlizzi, J. Hodgins, and H. Ishiguro, “Conversational Gaze Mechanisms for Humanlike Robots,” ACM Trans. on Interactive Intelligent Systems, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 1-33, 2012.
-  C. L. Breazeal, “Emotion and sociable humanoid robots,” Int. J. of Human-Computer Studies, Vol.59, No.1-2, pp. 119-155, 2003.
-  C. Becker-Asano, T. Kanda, C. Ishi, and H. Ishiguro, “Studying laughter in combination with two humanoid robots,” AI & SOCIETY, Vol.26, p.291-300, 2011.
-  Y. Muto, S. Takasugi, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Miyake, “Timing Control of Utterance and Gesture in Interaction between Human and Humanoid robot,” Proc. of the IEEE Int. Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 1022-1028, 2009.
-  C. Liu, C. T. Ishi, H. Ishiguro, and N. Hagita, “Generation of Nodding, Head Tilting and Eye Gazing for Human-Robot Dialogue Interaction,” Proc. of ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 285-292, 2012.
-  T. Tojo, Y. Matsusaka, T. Ishii, and T. Kobayashi, “A conversational robot utilizing facial and body expressions,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on System, Man and Cybernetics, pp. 858-863, 2000.
-  Y. Ujiie, K. Inoue, T. Takubo, and T. Arai, “Evaluation of human sense of security for coexisting robots using virtual reality,” Proc. of Int. Symposium on Systems and Human Science, 2006.
-  R. Gockley, J. Forlizzi, and R. Simmons, “Natural person-following behavior for social robots,” Proc. of ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 17-24, 2007.
-  R. Gockley and M. Matari’c, “Encouraging physical therapy compliance with a hands-off mobile robot,” Proc. of ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 150-155, 2006.
-  F. Zanlungo, T. Ikeda, and T. Kanda, “Social force model with explicit collision prediction,” Europhysics Letters, Vol.93, 68005, 2011.
-  M. Shiomi, F. Zanlungo, K. Hayashi, and T. Kanda, “A Framework with a Pedestrian Simulator for Deploying Robots into a Real Environment,” Simulation, modeling, and programming for autonomous robots, Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots, Vol.7628, pp. 185-196, 2012.
-  K. Hayashi, M. Shiomi, T. Kanda, and N. Hagita, “Friendly Patrolling: A Model of Natural Encounters,” Robotics: Science and Systems, pp. 121-128, 2011.
-  M. Wiener and A. Mehrabian, “Language within language: Immediacy, a channel in verbal communication,” New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968.
-  M. O’Sullivan, J. Hartley, D. Saunders, and J. Fiske, “Key concepts in communication,” New York: Methuen, 1983.
-  M. Argyle and J. Dean, “Eye contact, distance, and affiliation,” Sociometry, Vol.28, pp. 289-304, 1965.
-  J. N. Bailenson, J. Blascovich, A. C. Beall, and J. M. Loomis, “Equilibrium revisited: Mutual gaze and personal space in virtual environments,” PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol.10, pp. 583-598, 2001.
-  S. Shigemi, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Yoshiike, K. Kawabe, and N. Ogawa, “Development of New ASIMO,” Honda Technical Review, Vol.18, No.1, pp. 38-44, 2006.
-  F. J. Bernieri, J. S. Gillis, J. M. Davis, and J. G. Grahe, “Dyad rapport and accuracy of its judgment across situations: A lens model analysis,” J. of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.71, pp. 110-129, 1996.
-  L. M. Coutts and M. Ledden, “Nonverbal compensatory reactions to changes in interpersonal proximity,” J. of Social Psychology, Vol.102, No.2, pp. 283-290, 1977.
-  H. Kamide, K. Kawabe, S. Shigemi, and T. Arai, “Development of a Psychological Scale for General Impressions of Humanoid,” Advanced Robotics, Vol.27, No.1, 2013.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.
Copyright© 2013 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.