JRM Vol.24 No.3 pp. 458-463
doi: 10.20965/jrm.2012.p0458


Development of a Human Symbiotic Assist Arm “PAS-Arm” (Basic Concept and Mechanism)

Mineo Higuchi

Advanced Technology R&D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-honmachi, Amagasaki-shi, Hyogo 661-8661, Japan

December 24, 2011
January 4, 2012
June 20, 2012
robot, mechanism, passive robotics, continuously variable transmission, differential gear
We describe a new robotic assist device: a passive assist arm (PAS-Arm). PAS-Arms are intended for direct physical interaction with a human operator, handling a shared payload. PAS-Arms are physically passive. Their purpose is not to enhance human strength, but to provide virtual guiding surfaces, which constrain and guide the motion of the payload within a shared workspace. PAS-Arms have three joints and a three dimensional workspace, but possesses only a two degrees of freedom, due to the reduction of degrees of freedom created by a combination of Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVTs) and differential gears. The combination of CVTs and differential gears places one mechanical constraint on three angular velocities of the joints. PAS-Arms have no joint actuators and no force sensors. Thus they are potentially well suited to safety and low cost. This paper proposes a basic concept of PAS-Arms and explains a principle and a construction of PAS-Arms. We discuss the relation of PAS-Arms to conventionally actuated robots and another type of assist arms. We also describe range of transmission ratio of CVTs.1
1. This paper is the full translation from the transactions of JSME, Series C, Vol.73, No.730, 2007.
Cite this article as:
M. Higuchi, “Development of a Human Symbiotic Assist Arm “PAS-Arm” (Basic Concept and Mechanism),” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.24 No.3, pp. 458-463, 2012.
Data files:
  1. [1] Y. Yamada, H. Konosu, T. Morizono, and Y. Umetani, “Proposal of Skill-Assist for Mounting Operations in Automobile Assembly Processes,” Trans. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, Vol.68, No.666, pp. 509-516, 2002 (in Japanese).
  2. [2] K. Kawamura and M. Iskarous, “Trends in Service Robotics for the Disabled and the Elderly,” Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robotics and Systems, pp. 1647-1654, 1994.
  3. [3] M. Fujie, “Nowadays and Future in the Research and Development for Welfare Equipments,” J. of the Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.21, No.4, pp. 336-339, 2003 (in Japanese).
  4. [4] H. Ikeda, T. Saito, and N. Sugimoto, “Realization of Inherently Safe Human-Symbiotic Robot – Hazard-Elimination Process Based on International Safety Standards,” ISCIE J. “Systems, Control and Information,” Vol.13 No.12, pp. 575-584, 2000 (in Japanese).
  5. [5] ISO/CD12100, Safety of machinery – Basic concepts, general principles for design, 1998.
  6. [6] ISO10218, Manipulating industrial robots – safety, 1992.
  7. [7] S. Ishii, “Meal-assistance Robot “My Spoon”,” J. of the Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.21, No.4, pp. 378-381, 2003 (in Japanese).
  8. [8] J. Furusho, K. Koyanagi, J. Kataoka, R. Ushio, A. Inoue, and S. Takenaka, “Development of 3-D Rehabilitation System for Upper Limb – 1st Report: Development of Mechanism including ER Actuators and Whole System –,” J. of the Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.23, No.5, pp. 629-636, 2005 (in Japanese).
  9. [9] T. Saito and H. Ikeda, “Safe Torque Control System of Human-Collaborative Material Handling Robot for Crush Prevention,” The 36th Int. Symposium on Robotics, 2005.
  10. [10] T. Aoki and K. Taguchi, “Human-Assist Robot for Nursing Use,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 183-189, 2001.
  11. [11] A. Goswami, M. A. Peshkin, and J. E. Colgate, “Passive Robotics: An Exploration of Mechanical Computation,” Proc. of 1990, IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 279-284, 1990.
  12. [12] M. A. Peshkin and J. E. Colgate, “Cobots,” Industrial Robot, Vol.26, No.5, pp. 335-341, 1999.
  13. [13] Y. Delnondedieu and J. Troccaz, “PADyC: A Passive Arm with Dynamic Constraints,” A two degrees of freedom prototype. 2nd Int. Symp. on Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, MRCAS��� 95, pp. 173-180, 1995.
  14. [14] T. Morita and S. Sugano, “New Control Method for Robot Joint by Mechanical Impedance Adjuster – Proposition of Mechanisms and Application to Robot Finger –,” J. of the Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.14, No.1, pp. 131-136, 1996 (in Japanese).
  15. [15] T. Mitsuda, S. Kuge, M. Wakabayashi, and S. Kawamura, “Wearable force display using a Particle Mechanical Constraint,” Presence, Vol.11, No.6, pp. 569-577, 2002.
  16. [16] Y. Hirata, A. Hara, and K. Kosuge, “Passive-type Intelligent Walking Support System “RT Walker”,” Proc. of the 2004 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 3871-3876, 2004.
  17. [17] M. Higuchi, “Working Auxiliary Arm,” application number JP20030410620 20031209, patent number JP2005169536, 2003.
  18. [18] M. Higuchi, “Development of a Human Symbiotic Assist Arm “PAS-Arm”,” Proc. of 22nd Annual Conf. of Robotics Society of Japan, pp. 227-228, 2004 (in Japanese).
  19. [19] A. Svoboda, “Computing mechanisms and linkages,” MIT Radiation Laboratory Series, No.27, McGraw-Hill, 1948.
  20. [20] M. Peshkin and J. E. Colgate, “Witaya Wannasuphoprasit, Carl Moore, Brent Gillespie, Cobot architecture,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.17, No.4, p. 377, August, 2001.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jun. 03, 2024