Distributed Robotics Education
Henrik Hautop Lund and Luigi Pagliarini
Center for Playware, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Distributed robotics takes many forms, for instance, multirobots, modular robots, and self-reconfigurable robots. The understanding and development of such advanced robotic systems demand extensive knowledge in engineering and computer science. In this paper, we describe the concept of a distributed educational system as a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming as the foundation for distributed robotics and human-robot interaction development. This is done by providing an educational tool that enables problem representation to be changed, related to multirobot control and human-robot interaction control from virtual to physical representation. The proposed system is valuable for bringing a vast number of issues into education – such as parallel programming, distribution, communication protocols, master dependency, connectivity, topology, island modeling software behavioral models, adaptive interactivity, feedback, and user interaction. We show how the proposed system can be considered a tool for easy, fast, flexible hands-on exploration of these distributed robotic issues. Through examples, we show how to implement interactive parallel and distributed processing in robotics with different software models such as openloop, randomness-based, rule-based, user-interactionbased, AI- and ALife-based, and morphology-based control.
-  T. Arai, E. Pagello, and L. E. Parker, “Editorial: Advances in Multi-Robot Systems,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.18, No.5, pp. 655-661, 2002.
-  M. Mataric, “Behaviour-based control: Examples from navigation, learning, and group behaviour,” J. of experimental and theoretical artificial intelligence, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 323-336, 1997.
-  T. Fukuda and S. Nakagawa, “A dynamically reconfigurable robotic system (concept of a system and optimal configurations),” Proc. of IECON, pp. 588-595, 1987.
-  T. Arai, H. Ogata, and T. Suzuki, “Collision avoidance among multiple robots using virtual impedance,” Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 479-485, 1989.
-  H. Asama, A.Matsumoto, and Y. Ishida, “Design of an autonomous and distributed robot system: ACTRESS,” Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 283-290, 1989.
-  H. H. Lund, J. A. Arendt, J. Fredslund, and L. Pagliarini, “Ola: What Goes Up, Must Fall Down,” J. of Artificial Life and Robotics, Vol.4, No.1, 1999.
-  H. H. Lund and L. Pagliarini, “RoboCup Jr. with LEGO Mindstorms,” Proc. of Int. Conf. On Robotics and Automation (ICRA2000), IEEE Press, NJ, 2000.
-  H. H. Lund, “Intelligent Artefacts,” In Sugisaka and Tanaka (Eds.), Proc. of 8th Int. Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics, I11-I14, ISAROB, Oita, 2003.
-  H. H. Lund andM. Vesisenaho, “I-Blocks in an African Context,” In Proc. of 9th Int. Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics, pp. I-7-I-12. ISAROB, Oita, 2004.
-  H. H. Lund and E. Sutinen, “Contextualised ICT4D: a Bottom-Up Approach,” Proc. of 10th Int. Conf. on Applied Computer Science, WSEAS, Japan, 2010.
-  H. H. Lund, M. D. Pedersen, and R. Beck, “Modular Robotic Tiles – Experiments for Children with Autism,” Proc. of 13th Int. Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics (AROB’13), ISAROB, Oita, 2008.
-  H. H. Lund, “Modular Robotics for Playful Physiotherapy,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Rehabilitation Robotics, IEEE Press, pp. 571-575, 2009.
-  B. P. Gerkey, R. T. Vaughan, and A. Howard, “The Player/Stage Project: Tools for Multi-Robot and Distributed Sensor Systems,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Advanced Robotics (ICAR), pp. 317-323, Coimbra, Portugal, 2003.
-  D. Harel, “Algorithmics,” Addison-Wesley, 1987.
-  A. Silberschatz, J. Peterson, and P. Galvin, “Operating System Concepts,” Addison-Wesley, 1991.
-  J. Piaget and B. Inhelder, “La psychologie de L’enfant,” Paris, P.U.F., 1966.
-  S. Papert, “Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas,” Basic Books, New York, 1980.
-  S. Papert, “Constructionism: A New Opportunity for Elementary Science Education,” A proposal to the National Science Foundation, 1986.
-  F. Martin, “Ideal and Real Systems: A Study of Notions of Control in Undergraduates Who Design Robots,” Y. Kafai and M. Resnick (Eds.), Constructionism in Practice: Rethinking the Roles of Technology in Learning, MIT Press, MA, 1984.
-  H. H. Lund, “Robot Soccer in Education,” Advanced Robotics Journal, Vol.13, No.8, pp. 737-752, 1999.
-  G. Lakoff and R. Nunez, “Where Mathematics Comes From,” New York: Basic Books, 2000.
-  R. Nemirovsky, C. Tierney, and T. Wright, “Body motion and graphing,” Cognition and Instruction, Vol.16, pp. 119-172, 1998.
-  A. Manches, C. O’Malley, and S. Benford, “The role of physical representations in solving number problems: A comparison of young children’s use of physical and virtual materials,” Computers & Education, Vol.54, pp. 622-640, 2010.
-  J. J. Gibson, “The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception,” Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.
-  J. Zhang, “The Nature of external Representations in Problem Solving,” Cognitive Science, Vol.21, No.2, pp. 179-217, 1997.
-  J. Zhang and D. A. Norman, “Representations in Distributed Cognitive Tasks,” Cognitive Science, Vol.18, pp. 87-122, 1994.
-  H. Ishii and B. Ullmer, “Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms,” Proc. of CHI: Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 234-41, 1997.
-  D. Rumelhart, and J. McClelland, “Parallel Distributed Processing, Vol.I,” Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986.
-  A. Derakhshan, F. Hammer, and H. H. Lund, “Adapting Playgrounds for Children’s Play Using Ambient Playware,” Proc. of IEEE Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS’06), IEEE Press, Hong Kong, 2006.
-  H. H. Lund and A. T. Thorsteinsson, “Adaptive Playware in Physical Games,” Proc. of Foundations of Digital Games 2011, ACM, 2011.
-  H. H. Lund and T. Thorsteinsson, “Social Playware for mediating tele-play interaction over distance,” Proc. of 16th Int. Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics, ISAROB, Japan, 2011.
-  R. Brooks, “A robust layered control system for a mobile robot,” IEEE J. of Robotics and Automation, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 14-23, 1986.
-  H. H. Lund and P. Marti, “Designing modular robotic playware,” IEEE Int. Workshop Robots Human Interactive Commun, Toyama, Japan, IEEE Press, pp. 115-121, 2009.
-  A. Derakhshan, F. Hammer, H. H. Lund, Y. Demazeau, and L. Pagliarini, “Adapting Playgrounds using Multi-Agent Systems,” Proc. of the Ninth Scandinavian Conf. on Artificial Intelligence (SCAI2006), pp. 151-158, Espoo, Finland, October 25-27, 2006.
-  J. v. Neumann, “The general and logical theory of automata,” in L. A. Jeffress (Ed.), Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior – The Hixon Symposium, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 1-31, 1951.
-  H. Ishiguro, “Android science: Conscious and subconscious recognition,” Connect. Sci., Vol.18, No.4, pp. 319-332, 2006.
-  D. Sakamoto, T. Kanda, T. Ono, H. Ishiguro, and N. Hagita, “Android as a telecommunication medium with human like presence,” Proc. 2nd ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. Human-Robot Interact, 2007.
-  F. Mueller, A. Agamanolis, and R. Picard, “Exertion Interfaces: Sports over a Distance for Social Bonding and Fun,” Proc. of CHI 2003, ACM, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 561-568, 2003.
-  K. Suzuki and S. Hashimoto, “FeelLight: A Communication Device for Distant Nonverbal Exchange,” Proc. of ETP’04, New York, USA, ACM, 2004.
-  O. Miglino, H. H. Lund, and M. Cardaci, “Robotics as an educational tool,” J. of Interactive Learning Research, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 25-48, 1999.
-  V. Braitenberg, “Vehicles: experiments in synthetic psychology,” MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1984.
-  S. Woodcock, “Game AI the state of industry, Game Developer,” Miller Freeman, 1999.
-  F. L. Lewis, “Neural network control of robot manipulators,” IEEE Expert/Intelligent System & their Applications, Vol.1, No.3, 1996.
-  J. S. Bruner et al., “Studies in Cognitive Growth,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966.
-  L. S. Vygotsky, “Thought and language,” Cambridge; MIT Press, 1986.
-  A. Clark, “Being There: Putting Brain, Body and World Together Again,” Cambridge, Mass., Bradford/MIT Press, 1997.
-  E. H. Ostergaard, K. Kassow, R. Beck, and H. H. Lund, “Design of the ATRON lattice-based self-reconfigurable robot,” Autonomous Robots, Vol 21, No.2, pp. 165-183, 2006.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.
Copyright© 2011 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.