Skin Color Registration Using Recognition of Waving Hands
Kota Irie*,***, Masahito Takahashi*, Kenji Terabayashi**,***,
Hidetoshi Ogishima**, and Kazunori Umeda**,***
*Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Chuo University
**Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan
***CREST Program, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
This paper proposes skin color registration using the recognition of waving hands. In order to recognize hand gestures from images, skin colors are useful information. The proposed method can register skin colors simply and quickly because it uses just a few waves of the hand. The method consists of 2 steps. First, the regions of the waving hands are extracted from low-resolution images without using color information. Second, the color values of the extracted regions are classified into background colors and hand colors depending on time series of color images. The color information classified as hand colors is registered as skin colors. The proposed method is robust against lighting conditions and individual differences in skin color, because the skin color is registered as an adapted skin color in each case. Several experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Hidetoshi Ogishima, and Kazunori Umeda, “Skin Color Registration Using Recognition of Waving Hands,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.22, No.3, pp. 262-272, 2010.
-  V. Pavlovic, R. Sharma, and T. Huang, “Visual Interpretation of Hand Gestures for Human-Computer Interaction: A Review,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), Vol.19, No.7, pp. 677-695, 1997.
-  J. Sherrah and S. Gong, “VIGOUR: A System for Tracking and Recognition of Multiple People and their Activities,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition, pp. 179-183, 2000.
-  P. Hong, M. Turk, and T. S. Huang, “Gesture Modeling and Recognition Using Finite State Machines,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp. 691-694, 2000.
-  H. Wu, T. Shioyama, and H. Kobayashi, “Spotting Recognition of Head Gestures from Color Image Series,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition, pp. 83-85, 1998.
-  A. Nishikawa, A. Ohnishi, M. Nishimura, A. Hirano, K. Koara, and F. Miyazaki, “Systematic selection of local correlation parameters for opticalflow-based gesture recognition,” Proc. of the 8th IEEE Int. Workshop on Robot and Human Interaction (ROMAN’99), pp. 183-188, 1999.
-  T. Yamagishi, Y. Nakanishi, and K. Umeda, “Gesture Recognition for Realizing Intelligent Room,” Mecatronics’01 5th Franco-Japanese Congress & 3rd European-Asian Congress Besancon, pp. 293-298, 2001.
-  S. Akamatsu, “Computer Recognition of Human Face –A Survey–,” The Trans. of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers D-II, J80-DII(8), pp. 2031-2046, 1997.
-  K. Asanuma, M. Onishi, A. Kojima, and K. Fukunaga, “Extracting Regions of Human Face and Hands considering Information of Color and Region Tracking,” The Trans. of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan C, A publication of Electronics, Information and System Society, Vol.119-C, No.11, pp. 1351-1358, 1999. (in Japanese)
-  S. Kawato and J. Ohya, “Automatic skin-color distribution extraction for face detection and tracking,” Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Signal Processing (WCCC-ICSP 2000), Vol.2, pp. 1415-1418, 2000.
-  G. Gomez and E. Moralez, “Automatic feature construction and a simple rule induction algorithm for skin detection,” In Proc. IMCL Workshop on Machine Learning in Computer Vision, pp. 31-38, 2002.
-  S. L. Phung, A. Bouzerdoum, and D. Chai, “Skin segmentation using color pixel classification: analysis and comparison,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol.27, No.1, pp. 148-154, 2005.
-  P. Kakumanua, S. Makrogiannis, and N. Bourbakis, “A survey of skin-color modeling and detection methods,” Pattern Recognition, Vol.40, No.3, pp. 1106-1122, 2007.
-  M. R. Girgis, T. M. Mahmoud, and T. Abd-El-Hafeez, “An Approach to Image Extraction and Accurate Skin Detection from Web Pages,” Int. J. of Computer Science and Engineering, pp. 88-96, 2007.
-  J. H. Shin, J. S. Lee, S. K. Kil, D. F. Shen, J. G. Ryu, E. H. Lee, H. K. Min, and S. H. Hong, “Hand Region Extraction and Gesture Recognition using entropy analysis,” IJCSNS Int. J. of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol.6, No.2A, pp. 216-222, 2006.
-  Y. Shi, R. Taib, and S. Lichman, “GestureCam: A Smart Camera for Gesture Recognition and Gesture-Controlled Web Navigation,” 9th Int. Conf. on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV), pp. 1-6, 2006.
-  M. Elmezain, A. Al-Hamadi, J. Appenrodt, and B. Michaelis, “A Hidden Markov Model-Based Continuous Gesture Recognition System for Hand Motion Trajectory,” 19th Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), pp. 1-4, 2008.
-  Y. Sato, Y. Kobayashi, and H. Koike, “Fast tracking of hands and fingertips in infrared images for augmented desk interface,” Proc. 2000 IEEE Int. Conf. on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp. 462-467, 2000.
-  K. Irie, M. Wada, and K. Umeda, “Construction of an Intelligent Room using Distributed Camera System,” Stereo Vision edited by Asim Bhatti, InTech Education and Publishing, pp. 121-130, 2008.
-  K. Irie, N. Wakamura, and K. Umeda, “Construction of an Intelligent Room Based on Gesture Recognition –Operation of Electric Appliances with Hand Gestures–,” Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 193-198, 2004.
-  K. Irie and K. Umeda, “Detection of Waving Hands from Images Using Time Series of Intensity Values,” The 3rd China-Japan Symposium on Mechatronics (CJSM), 2002.
-  K. Fukunaga, “Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition (Second Edition),” Academic Press, 1990.
-  G. Taguchi and R. Jugulum, “The Mahalanobis Taguchi Strategy: A Pattern Technology System,” John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2002.
Copyright© 2010 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.