JDR Vol.17 No.6 pp. 1068-1079
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2022.p1068


Factors Affecting Behavior and Behavioral Intentions of Expectant and Nursing Mothers Regarding Disaster Preparation

Yumiko Hosokawa*,†, Shoji Ohtomo**, and Reo Kimura***

*Faculty of Nursing, Kobe Women’s University
4-7-2 Minatojima Nakamachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0046, Japan

Corresponding author

**College of Interhuman Symbiotic Studies, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan

***School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Japan

November 3, 2021
June 15, 2022
October 1, 2022
expectant and nursing mothers, preparation for disaster, theory of planned behavior

Expectant and nursing mothers need to prepare for natural disasters to protect their lives and their children’s lives and to maintain their health and daily life after the disaster. This study aimed to clarify the actual conditions of disaster preparedness behaviors of expectant and nursing mothers and to identify factors promoting disaster preparation behavior and behavioral intentions that lead to disaster preparation behavior among expectant and nursing mothers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey involving 1,000 expectants and nursing mothers between October 2020 and January 2021 using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. We received 135 valid responses. The questionnaire included items about the actual status of disaster preparation, attitudes toward preparation behavior based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, subjective norms on disaster preparation determined by perceived expectations from others, descriptive norms on disaster preparation that refer to the perceptions of others’ engagement in disaster preparation behavior, perceptions of behavioral control that refer to views regarding how easy or difficult it is to perform a given behavior, and social support sources that are required for disaster preparation behavior. Correlations among variables were analyzed. A structural equation modeling technique was used to test a model to explain factors encouraging expectant and nursing mothers to prepare for disaster.

Cite this article as:
Y. Hosokawa, S. Ohtomo, and R. Kimura, “Factors Affecting Behavior and Behavioral Intentions of Expectant and Nursing Mothers Regarding Disaster Preparation,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.17, No.6, pp. 1068-1079, 2022.
Data files:
  1. [1] Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, “Law to partially revise the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law, Law No.41 of 2012,” (in Japanese) [accessed May 1, 2021]
  2. [2] F. G. Cunningham et al., “Maternal anatomy and physiology,” F. G. Cunningham et al. (Eds.), A. Okamoto, O. Samura, and T. Tanemoto (Eds. of Translation), “Williams obstetrics,” 24th edition, pp. 17-81, Nanzando, 2015 (in Japanese).
  3. [3] Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, “Disaster countermeasure guidelines for pregnant women and infants (revised in March 2014),” 2014, (in Japanese) [accessed July 30, 2021]
  4. [4] A. Morimi et al., “Survey of pregnant women’s awareness of disaster prevention and preparation for disasters,” Maternal Health, Vol.56, No.3, p. 202, 2015 (in Japanese).
  5. [5] M. Nishizato et al., “Thoughts about disaster prevention and the present state of preparation among pregnant women and mothers caring for children,” J. of Iwate Society of Nursing Science, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 3-14. 2011 (in Japanese).
  6. [6] K. Kubo, M. Shishido, and K. Kuramoti, “Characteristics of disaster prevention awareness in mothers having infants,” Bulletin of Tokyo Gakugei University, Division of Comprehensive Educational Science, Vol.63, pp. 169-177, 2012 (in Japanese).
  7. [7] Y. Takami et al., “Concern and behavior regarding disaster preparedness among pregnant women,” J. of Japan Maternity Nursing, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 43-49, 2011 (in Japanese).
  8. [8] K. Hashimoto, “Further development of the spiral model for exercise adherence,” J. of Health Science, Vol.32, pp. 51-62, 2010 (in Japanese).
  9. [9] K. Z. Y. Myint et al., “Unnecessary dieting intention and behavior among female students in Naha City, Japan,” Tropical Medicine and Health, Vol.43, No.2, pp. 131-140, 2015.
  10. [10] T. Motoyoshi, K. Takao, and S. Ikeda, “Determinant factors of community-based disaster preparedness: A case study of flood prone area,” The Japanese J. of Psychology, Vol.75, No.1, pp.72-77, 2004 (in Japanese).
  11. [11] T. Motoyoshi, K. Takao, and S. Ikeda, “Determinants of household- and community-based disaster preparedness,” Japanese J. of Social Psychology, Vol.23, No.3, pp. 209-220, 2008 (in Japanese).
  12. [12] I. Ajzen, “The theory of planned behavior,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.50, No.2, pp. 179-211, 1991.
  13. [13] C. Matsumoto, “Chapter 4: Planned behavior theory,” C. Matsumoto, “Basics of health behavior theory for medical and health staff focusing on lifestyle diseases,” pp. 37-45, Ishiyaku Publishers, Inc., 2002 (in Japanese).
  14. [14] Y. Fukuda, “Chapter 2: Individual-level theory/model,” Japan Society of Health Education and Promotion (Ed.), “Research and practice based on health behavior theory,” pp. 36-60, Igaku-Shoin, Ltd., 2019 (in Japanese).
  15. [15] I. Ajzen, “Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior,” J. of Applied Social Psychology, Vol.32, No.4, pp. 665-683, 2002.
  16. [16] B. A. Nosek et al., “Cumulative and career-stage citation impact of social-personality psychology programs and their members,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol.36, No.10, pp. 1283-1300, 2010.
  17. [17] M. Kitaori and T. Yoshida, “The influence of descriptive norms on illegal crossing at an intersection,” Japanese J. of Social Psychology, Vol.16, No.2, pp. 73-82, 2000 (in Japanese).
  18. [18] R. B. Cialdini, R. R. Reno, and C. A. Kallgren, “A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places,” J. of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.58, No.6, pp. 1015-1026, 1990.
  19. [19] S. Ohtomo and Y. Hirose, “The influences of situation-oriented and goal-oriented decision-making on risk-related behavior in a natural disaster,” Japanese J. of Social Psychology, Vol.23, No.2, pp. 140-151, 2007 (in Japanese).
  20. [20] H. Minami, “Social Support Network; Overviews of Theories and Research Methods,” Japanese J. of Health Behavioral Science, Vol.1, pp. 88-108, 1986 (in Japanese).
  21. [21] M. Nohara and S. Miyagi, “Family support and quality of life of pregnant women during pregnancy and after birth,” Japanese J. of Public Health, Vol.56, No.12, pp. 849-862, 2009 (in Japanese).
  22. [22] M. Umai, “ Mother/family from the viewpoint of sociology,” Y. Taketani and S. Maehara (Eds.), “Midwifery Course 3: Basic Midwifery (3) – Maternal Psychology/Sociology,” 3rd Edition, pp. 68-88, Igaku-Shoin, Ltd., 2004 (in Japanese).
  23. [23] N. Arimori and S. Horiuchi, “Social support in mother and child – Review (1) –,” J. of Japan Academy of Midwifery, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 40-48, 1991 (in Japanese).
  24. [24] I. Takahashi, “Awareness of social support for mothers with infants requiring medical care,” J. of Japanese Society of Child Health Nursing, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 31-37, 1999 (in Japanese).
  25. [25] M. Maru et al., “Characteristics of Social Support to Mothers of Young Children,” The J. of Child Health, Vol.60, No.6, pp. 787-794, 2001 (in Japanese).
  26. [26] G. Iwata, ”The Effect of Social Support on Pregnant Women’s Anxiety – Focusing Support from Husband, Family Members and Midwife –,” Bulletin of Faculty of Education, Hokkaido University, Vol.88, pp. 151-158, 2003 (in Japanese).
  27. [27] Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, “Opinion Poll on Disaster Prevention (Opinion Poll Report November 2017 Survey),” 2017, (in Japanese) [accessed July 24, 2020]
  28. [28] Keizai Koho Center (KKC) International Platform, “Report on the results of the Awareness and Fact-finding Survey on Disaster Preparation and Response,” 2018, (in Japanese) [accessed July 24, 2020]
  29. [29] Japanese Midwives Association, “Midwife’s wisdom in the event of a disaster,” (in Japanese) [accessed August 10, 2020]
  30. [30] K. Hamilton et al., “Reasoned and implicit processes in heavy episodic drinking; An integrated dual-process model,” British J. of Health Psychology, Vol.25, No.1, pp. 189-209, 2020.
  31. [31] A. Oshio, “Chapter 5: Chain of Causal Relationships,” A. Oshio, “First Covariance structure analysis: Path Analysis by Amos,” 2nd Edition, pp. 91-124, Tokyo Tosho, Co., Ltd., 2014 (in Japanese).
  32. [32] A. Oshio, “Chapter 8: Covariance Structure Analysis,” A. Oshio, “Psychological/Survey Data Analysis by SPSS and Amos Factor Analysis/Covariance Structure Analysis,” 3rd Edition, pp. 187-222, Tokyo Tosho, Co., Ltd., 2019 (in Japanese).
  33. [33] C. Yoshizawa, J. Nakayama, and K. Kono, “Public attitudes towards disaster, preparedness, and evacuation behavior: From the attitude survey on disaster,” The NHK Monthly Report on Broadcast Research, Vol.70, No.4, pp. 28-49, 2020 (in Japanese).
  34. [34] E. L. Tolma et al., “Cognitive motivations associated with screening mammography in Cyprus,” Preventive Medicine, Vol.36, No.3, pp. 363-373, 2003.
  35. [35] S. Watanabe, “Consideration of factors related to the preparedness for protecting pregnant women in the event of a big earthquake – In the area where a Nankai megathrust earthquake is expected –,” J. of the Int. University of Health and Welfare, Vol.23, No.2, pp. 75-85, 2018 (in Japanese).

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Dec. 01, 2022