JDR Vol.16 No.7 pp. 1015-1029
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2021.p1015


Comparisons of Numerical Models on Formation of Sediment Deposition Induced by Tsunami Run-Up

Ako Yamamoto*1,†, Yuki Kajikawa*2, Kei Yamashita*3, Ryota Masaya*4, Ryo Watanabe*4, and Kenji Harada*5

*1Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan

Corresponding author

*2Social Systems and Civil Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan

*3International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan

*4Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan

*5Center for Integrated Research and Education of Natural Hazards, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan

May 25, 2021
August 31, 2021
October 1, 2021
tsunami sediment transport, hydraulic experiment, numerical simulations, model comparisons

Tsunami sediments provide direct evidence of tsunami arrival histories for tsunami risk assessments. Therefore, it is important to understand the formation process of tsunami sediment for tsunami risk assessment. Numerical simulations can be used to better understand the formation process. However, as the formation of tsunami sediments is affected by various conditions, such as the tsunami hydraulic conditions, topographic conditions, and sediment conditions, many problems remain in such simulations when attempting to accurately reproduce the tsunami sediment formation process. To solve these problems, various numerical models and methods have been proposed, but there have been few comparative studies among such models. In this study, inter-model comparisons of tsunami sediment transport models were performed to improve the reproducibility of tsunami sediment features in models. To verify the reproducibility of the simulations, the simulation results were compared with the results of sediment transport hydraulic experiments using a tsunami run-up to land. Two types of experiments were conducted: a sloping plane with and without coverage by silica sand (fixed and movable beds, respectively). The simulation results confirm that there are conditions and parameters affecting not only the amount of sediment transport, but also the distribution. In particular, the treatment of the sediment coverage ratio in a calculation grid, roughness coefficient, and bedload transport rate formula on the fixed bed within the sediment transport model are considered important.

Cite this article as:
Ako Yamamoto, Yuki Kajikawa, Kei Yamashita, Ryota Masaya, Ryo Watanabe, and Kenji Harada, “Comparisons of Numerical Models on Formation of Sediment Deposition Induced by Tsunami Run-Up,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.7, pp. 1015-1029, 2021.
Data files:
  1. [1] T. Abe, K. Goto, and D. Sugawara, “Relationship between the maximum extent of tsunami sand and the inundation limit of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on the Sendai Plain, Japan,” Sedimentary Geol., Vol.282, pp. 142-150, doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.05.004, 2012.
  2. [2] F. Nanayama, A. Makino, K. Satake, R. Furukawa, Y. Yokoyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Twenty tsunami event deposits in the past 9000 years along the Kuril subduction zone identified in Lake Harutori-ko, Kushiro City, eastern Hokkaido, Japan,” Annual Report on Active Fault and Paleoearthquache Researches, No.1, pp. 233-249, 2001 (in Japanese).
  3. [3] O. Fujiwara, T. Kamataki, J. Uchida, K. Abe, and T. Haraguchi, “Early Holocene coseismic uplift and tsunami deposits recorded in a drowned valley deposit on the SE coast of the Boso Peninsula, central Japan,” Quaternary Res., Vol.48, No.1, pp. 1-10, doi: 10.4116/jaqua.48.1, 2009 (in Japanese).
  4. [4] D. Sugawara, “Tsunami sedimentation amd deposits due to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: a review of case studies from Sendai and Hirota Bays,” Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan, Vol.123, No.8, pp. 781-804, doi: 10.5575/geosoc.2017.0047, 2017 (in Japanese).
  5. [5] D. Sugawara, K. Goto, and B. E. Jaffe, “Numerical models of tsunami sediment transport – Current understanding and future directions,” Mar. Geol., Vol.352, pp. 295-320, doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2014.02.007, 2014.
  6. [6] B. E. Jaffe, K. Goto, D. Sugawara, G. Gelfenbaum, and S. L. Selle, “Uncertainty in Tsunami Sediment Transport Modeling,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.4, pp. 647-661, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2016.p0647, 2016.
  7. [7] T. Takahashi, N. Shuto, F. Imamura, and D. Asai, “Modeling sediment transport due to tsunamis with exchange rate between bedload layer and suspended load layer,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. Coastal Eng, pp. 1508-1519, doi: 10.1061/40549(276)117, 2000.
  8. [8] C. W. Hirt and J. M. Sicilian, “A porosity technique for the definition obstacles in rectangular cell meshes,” Proc. of 4th Int. Conf. on Num. Ship Hydrodyn., pp. 1-19, 1985.
  9. [9] K. Ashida and M. Michiue, “Study on hydraulic resistance and bed-load transport rate in alluvial streams,” Proc. of the Japan Soc. of Civil Eng., Vol.206, pp. 59-69, doi: 10.2208/jscej1969.1972.206_59, 1972 (in Japanese).
  10. [10] T. Yoshii, M. Ikeno, and M. Matsuyama, “Experimental Study of Sediment Transport caused by Tsunami,” Proc. Coastal Eng., Vol.55, pp. 441-445, doi: 10.2208/proce1989.55.441, 2008 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  11. [11] T. Itakura and T. Kishi, “Open channel flow with suspended sediments,” J. Hydraul. Div., ASCE, Vol.106(HY8), pp. 1325-1343, doi: 10.1061/JYCEAJ.0005483, 1980.
  12. [12] W. W. Rubey, “Settling velocities of gravel, sand, and silt particles,” Am J. Sci., Vol.25, pp. 325-338, doi: 10.2475/ajs.s5-25.148.325, 1933.
  13. [13] C.-W. Shu, “High order finite difference and finite volume WENO schemes and Discontinuous Galerkin methods for CFD,” Int. J. Comput. Fluid D., Vol.17, No.2, pp. 107-118, doi: 10.1080/1061856031000104851, 2003.
  14. [14] S. V. Patankar, “Chapter 5: Convection and Diffusion,” S. V. Patankar, “Numerical Heat Transfer and Flow,” McGraw-Hill, 1980.
  15. [15] S. Ushijima and I. Nezu, “Computational method for free-surface flows on collocated grid with moving curvilinear coordinates,” J. Jpn. Soc. of Civil Eng., No.698/II-58, pp. 11-19, doi: 10.2208/jscej.2002.698_11, 2002 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  16. [16] Y. Kajikawa and M. Kuroiwa, “Numerical simulation of 3D flow and topography change in harbor caused by Tsunami,” Proc. 10th Int. Conf. on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2019), pp. 183-190, doi: 10.1007/978-981-15-0291-0_26, 2019.
  17. [17] M. Ikeno, T. Yoshii, M. Matsuyama, and N. Fujii, “Estimation of pickup rate of suspended sand by tsunami experiment and proposal of pickup rate formula,” J. Jpn. Soc. of Civil Eng., Ser. B2 (Coastal Engineering), Vol.65, No.1, pp. 506-510, doi: 10.2208/kaigan.65.506, 2009 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  18. [18] S. Gottlieb and C.-W. Shu, “Total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta schemes,” Math. Comput., Vol.67, pp. 73-85, doi: 10.1090/S0025-5718-98-00913-2, 1998.
  19. [19] Y. Kajikawa and O. Hinokidani, “Development of 2-D shallow-water flow model using WENO scheme,” J. Jpn. Soc. of Civil Eng., Ser. B1 (Hydraulic Engineering), Vol.69, No.4, pp. I_631-636, doi: 10.2208/jscejhe.69.I_631, 2013 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  20. [20] Y. Iwagaki, “(I) Hydrodynamical study on critical tractive force,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. of Civil Eng., Vol.1956, Issue 41, pp. 1-21, doi: 10.2208/jscej1949.1956.41_1, 1956 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  21. [21] T. Tsuchiya, “Scour limit at the downstream end of a smooth-surfaced channel bed,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. of Civil Eng., Vol.80, pp. 18-28, doi: 10.2208/jscej1949.1962.80_18, 1956 (in Japanese).
  22. [22] T. Takahashi, T. Kurokawa, M. Fujita, and H. Shimada, “Hydraulic experiment on sediment transport due to tsunamis with various sand grain size,” J. Jpn. Soc. of Civil Eng., Ser. B2 (Coastal Engineering), Vol.67, pp. 231-235, doi: 10.2208/kaigan.67.I_231, 2011 (in Japanese with English summary).
  23. [23] J. T. Limerinos, “Determination of the manning coefficient from measured bed roughness in natural channels,” Water Supply Paper, 1898-B, United States Geological Survey, doi: 10.3133/wsp1898B, 1970.
  24. [24] K. Yamashita, Y. Yamazaki, Y. Bai, T. Takahashi, F. Imamura, and K. F. Cheung, “Coupled non-hydrostatic flow and sediment transport model for investigation of coastal morphological changes caused by tsunamis,” 27th IUGG General Assembly, 2019.
  25. [25] Y. Yamazaki, Z. Kowalik, and K. F. Cheung, “Depth-integrated, non-hydrostatic model for wave breaking and runup,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, Vol.61, No.5, pp. 473-497, doi: 10.1002/fld.1952, 2009.
  26. [26] Y. Yamazaki, K. F. Cheung, and Z. Kowalik, “Depth-integrated, non-hydrostatic model with grid nesting for tsunami generation, propagation, and run-up,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, Vol.67, pp. 2081-2107, doi: 10.1002/fld.2485, 2011.
  27. [27] G. S. Stelling and M. Zijlema, “An accurate and efficient finite-difference algorithm for non-hydrostatic free-surface flow with application to wave propagation,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, Vol.43, No.1, pp. 1-23, doi: 10.1002/fld.595, 2013.
  28. [28] G. S. Stelling and S. P. A. Duinmeijer, “A staggered conservative scheme for every Froude number in rapidly varied shallow water flows,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, Vol.43, No.10, pp. 1329-1354, doi: 10.1002/fld.537, 2003.
  29. [29] J. F. Richardson and W. N. Zaki, “Sedimentation and fluidization: Part I,” Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., Vol.32, pp. 35-52, 1954.
  30. [30] D. Sugawara, H. Naruse, and K. Goto, “On the role of energy balance for numerical modelling of tsunami sediment transport,” AGU 2014 Fall Meeting, 2014.
  31. [31] J. Xu, “Grain-size characteristics of suspended sediment in the Yellow River, China,” Catena, Vol.38, No.3, pp. 243-263, doi: 10.1016/S0341-8162(99)00070-3, 1999.
  32. [32] J. Xu, “Erosion caused by hyperconcentrated flow on the Loess Plateau of China,” Catena, Vol.36, No.1-2, pp. 1-19, doi: 10.1016/S0341-8162(99)00009-0, 1999.
  33. [33] G. Tanaka and N. Izumi, “The bedload transport rate and hydraulic resistance in bedrock chanels partly covered with gravel,” J. Jpn. Soc. of Civil Eng., Ser. B1 (Hydraulic Engineering), Vol.69, No.4, pp. I_1033-I_1038, doi: 10.2208/jscejhe.69.I_1033, 2013 (in Japanese with English abstract).

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Oct. 22, 2021