JDR Vol.15 No.3 pp. 407-415
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2020.p0407


Seismic Fragility Analysis of Poorly Built Timber Buildings in Yangon Slum Areas

Khin Myat Kyaw*1,†, Chaitanya Krishna Gadagamma*1, Kyaw Kyaw*2, Hideomi Gokon*3, Osamu Murao*4, and Kimiro Meguro*1

*1Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo
4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan

Corresponding author

*2Civil Engineering Department, Yangon Technological University, Yangon, Myanmar

*3Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Ishikawa, Japan

*4International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan

December 6, 2019
February 18, 2020
March 30, 2020
fragility curve, poorly built timber building, dynamic analysis, pull-over loading test, damage state

In Yangon and the suburbs of Myanmar, timber-framed buildings are the popular choice of construction for residential purposes. Nearly 8% of the total population in Yangon live in the slums and slum-like areas where the dwellings are predominantly made of non-durable materials. Wood, jungle wood, and bamboo are used as the framework and corrugated galvanized iron sheets as walling and sheathing material. The seismic-resistance capacity of timber buildings in slum areas has never been approved based on experimental evidence. Therefore, this study aims to conduct a seismic fragility analysis for poorly built timber buildings by providing a suitable method through numerical and experimental approaches. Pull-over loading tests were conducted on selected buildings to assess their loading-displacement capacity. Further, numerical modeling was done using the Wallstat simulation tool, which is based on the discrete element method. The pushover curve was validated with the curve from the pull-over load test. Once the numerical model was confirmed, dynamic analysis was conducted for different peak ground acceleration (PGA) (g) values until the complete numerical collapse of the building. Three building configurations with three ranges of variable material properties were considered in this study. A primary damage state started at the low PGA value of 0.05 g, and it can be confirmed that the timber buildings that were studied, are vulnerable to earthquakes. The results based on qualitative analysis were accumulated to obtain the damage state matrix, which was then used to obtain the fragility curves.

Cite this article as:
K. Kyaw, C. Gadagamma, K. Kyaw, H. Gokon, O. Murao, and K. Meguro, “Seismic Fragility Analysis of Poorly Built Timber Buildings in Yangon Slum Areas,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.15 No.3, pp. 407-415, 2020.
Data files:
  1. [1] “Developing Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps of Yangon, Yangon Region, Myanmar,” UN-Habitat and Myanmar Geoscience Society, 2015.
  2. [2] UN-Habitat, “Mapping Yangon: The Untapped Communities,” [accessed June 20, 2019]
  3. [3] C. Gadagamma, A. Min, H. Gokon, K. Meguro, and K. Yu, “Development of Fragility Functions of RC Buildings in Yangon City Using Push over Analysis,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 31-39, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2018.p0031, 2018.
  4. [4] K. A. Korkmaz, “Evaluation of Seismic Fragility Analyses,” The 14th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering (WCEE), 2008.
  5. [5] D. Vamvatsikos and C. A. Cornell, “Incremental Dynamic Analysis,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol.31, No.3, pp. 491-514, doi: 10.1002/eqe.141, 2002.
  6. [6] T. Thiri, “Parametric Study on the Mechanical Behaviors of Timber,” Master Thesis, Yangon Technological University, 2015.
  7. [7] K. M. Sint et. al., “Investigation on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Some Myanmar Bamboo Species,” Forest Research Institute, Myanmar, 2005.
  8. [8] American Wood Council, “Manual for Engineered Wood Construction,” September 2018 version, 2018.
  9. [9] Building Research Institute, “User’s Manual: Software for Collapsing Analysis of Wooden Houses, wallstat (ver. 1.09),” 2011.
  10. [10] T. Nakagawa, M. Ohta, T. Tsuchimoto, and N. Kawai, “Collapsing process simulations of timber structures under dynamic loading III: Numerical simulations of the real size wooden houses,” J. of Wood Science, Vol.56, No.4, pp. 284-292, doi: 10.1007/s10086-009-1101-x, 2010.
  11. [11] I. Zentner, M. Gündel, and N. Bonfils, “Fragility analysis methods: Review of existing approaches and application,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol.323, pp. 245-258, doi: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2016.12.021, 2017.
  12. [12] Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), [accessed June 28, 2019]
  13. [13] S. Okada and N. Takai, “Classifications of structural types and damage patterns of Buildings for earthquake field investigation,” The 12th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, 2000.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on May. 19, 2024