Overview of Merapi Volcanic Activities from Monitoring Data 1992–2011 Periods
I Gusti Made Agung Nandaka, Sulistiyani, Yosef Suharna, and Raditya Putra
Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi,
Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Geological Agency of Indonesia
Jl. Cendana No.15, Yogyakarta 55166, Indonesia
Merapi, the dangerous active volcano in Indonesia, has been monitored since the 1920s by applying several methods and tools. The monitoring data from earlier times are stored well and can be used as reference for any precursors and signs before each eruption. This article evaluates the long-term activity of Merapi from the monitoring data for 1992–2011 to obtain the trends and patterns before the eruption period by combining the seismicity, deformation, volcanic gas, and temperature data in the same time span. Several characteristics are exhibited before effusive and explosive eruptions, i.e., a significant level up in volcano-tectonic energy and increased CO2 gas concentration indicating an explosive eruption. Effusive eruption is characterized by a significant multiphase earthquake with less occurrence of deep and shallow volcano-tectonic events. Deformation data from a tiltmeter and electronic distance measurement are important in understanding the dynamics of the lava dome and the eruption direction.
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