Overview of Merapi Volcanic Activities from Monitoring Data 1992–2011 Periods
I Gusti Made Agung Nandaka, Sulistiyani, Yosef Suharna, and Raditya Putra
Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi,
Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Geological Agency of Indonesia
Jl. Cendana No.15, Yogyakarta 55166, Indonesia
Merapi, the dangerous active volcano in Indonesia, has been monitored since the 1920s by applying several methods and tools. The monitoring data from earlier times are stored well and can be used as reference for any precursors and signs before each eruption. This article evaluates the long-term activity of Merapi from the monitoring data for 1992–2011 to obtain the trends and patterns before the eruption period by combining the seismicity, deformation, volcanic gas, and temperature data in the same time span. Several characteristics are exhibited before effusive and explosive eruptions, i.e., a significant level up in volcano-tectonic energy and increased CO2 gas concentration indicating an explosive eruption. Effusive eruption is characterized by a significant multiphase earthquake with less occurrence of deep and shallow volcano-tectonic events. Deformation data from a tiltmeter and electronic distance measurement are important in understanding the dynamics of the lava dome and the eruption direction.
-  B. Voight, E. K. Constantine, S. Siswowidjoyo, and R. Torley, “Historical eruptions of Merapi volcano, Central Java, Indonesia, 1768–1998,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.100, pp. 69-138, 2000.
-  G. Camus, A. Gourgaud, P.-C. Mossand-Berthommier, and P.-M. Vincent, “Merapi (Central Java, Indonesia): an outline of the structural and magmatological evolution, with a special emphasis to the major pyroclastic events,” J. of Volcanologyand Geothermal Research, Vol.100, No.1-4, pp. 139-163, 2000.
-  M. Iguchi, H. Nakamichi, K. Miyamoto, M. Shimomura, I. G. M. Agung Nandaka, A. Budi-Santoso, Sulistiyani, and N. Aisyah, “Volume of pyroclastic materials forecasted by precursory seismicity of Merapi volcano,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.14, No.1, 2019.
-  M. Iguchi, “Methods for eruption prediction and hazards evaluation at Indonesian Volcanoes,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.7, No.1, pp. 26-36, 2012.
-  G. Saccorotti, M. Iguchi, and A. Aiuppa, “In situ Volcano Monitoring: Present and Future,” Volcanic Hazards, Risk and Disaster, Elsevier, 2015.
-  M. Purbo-Hadiwidjojo, “The Geological Survey of Indonesia, A Summary of Its History, Report of Geological Survey of Indonesia,” 1961 (unpublished).
-  F. Beauducel, M. Agung Nandaka, F. H. Cornet, and M. Diament, “Mechanical discontinuities monitoring at Merapi volcano using kinematic GPS,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.150, pp. 300-312, 2006
-  B. Voight, K. Young, D. Hidayat, Subandrio, M. Purbawinata, A. Ratdomopurbo, Suharna, Panut, D. Sayudi, R. LaHusen, J. Marso, T. Murray, M. Dejean, M. Iguchi, and K. Ishihara, “Deformation and seismic precursors to dome-collapse and fountain-collapse nuées ardentes at Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.100, pp. 261-287, 2000.
-  A. Ratdomopurbo, F. Beauducel, J. Subandriyo, I. Agung Nandaka, C. Newhall, J. Suharna, D. Sayudi, H. Suparwaka, and S. Sunarta, “Overview of the 2006 eruption of Mt. Merapi,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.261, pp. 87-97, 2013.
-  Surono, P. Jousset, J. Pallister, M. Boichu, M. Fabrizia Buongiorno, A. Budisantoso, F. Costa, S. Andreastuti, F. Prata, D. Schneider, L. Clarisse, H. Humaida, S. Sumarti, C. Bignami, J. Griswold, S. Carn, C. Oppenheimer, and F. Lavigne, “The 2010 explosive eruption of Java’s Merapi volcano – A ‘100-year’ event,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vols. 241-242, pp. 121-135, 2012.
-  Suharna, A. Budisantosa, S. Dwiyono, and M. Jilal, “Statistik dan Analisis Seismisitas Merapi 2006,” Laporan dan Kajian Vulkanisme Merapi 2006, Yogyakarta, BPPTK, pp. 79-98, 2007 (unpublished).
-  D. Shimozuru, T. Miyazaki, N. Gyoda, and J. Matahelumual, “Seismic observation at Merapi volcano,” Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Vol.47, pp. 969-990, 1969.
-  A. Ratdomopurbo and G. Poupinet, “An overview of the seismicity of Merapi volcano (Java, Indonesia), 1983–1994,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.100, pp. 193-214, 2000
-  K. Young, B. Voight, Subandriyo, Sajiman, Miswanta, and T. Casadevall, “Ground deformation at Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia: distance changes,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.100, pp. 233-259, 2000.
-  F. Beauducel, F. Cornet, E. Suhanto, T. Duquesnoy, and M. Kasser, “Constraints on magma flux from displacements data at Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia,” J. of Geophysical Research, Vol.105, No.B4, pp. 8193-8203, 2000.
-  M. Westerhaus, D. Rebscher, W. Welle, A. Pfaff, A. Korner, and I. Nandaka, “Deformation measurements at the Flanks of Merapi Volcano,” Mitteilungen / Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft: Sonderband III/1998, pp. 3-8, 1998.
-  N. Aisyah, M. Iguchi, Subandriyo, A. Budisantoso, K. Hotta, and S. Sumarti, “Combination of a pressure source and block movement for ground deformation analysis at Merapi volcano prior to the eruptions in 2006 and 2010,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.357, pp. 239-253, 2018.
-  H. Darmawan, T. Walter, K. Sri Brotopuspito, Subandriyo, and I. Agung Nandaka, “Morphological and structural changes at the Merapi lava dome monitored in 2012–15 using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.349, pp. 256-267, 2018.
-  J. Hirabayashi, T. Ohba, R. Sukhyar, and Y. Sano, “Chemistry of volcanic gas from Jawa,” Proc. of Symposium on Japan-Indonesia IDNDR Project, Bandung, 1998.
-  H. Humaida, S. Sumarti, Subandriyo, Agung Nandaka, Sukarnen, Suharno, K. Rinekso, Badrijas, Ismial, and Sunarto, “Aktivitas Merapi 2006 dan Pemantauan Emisi SO2 dengan COSPEC,” Laporan dan Kajian Vulkanisme Merapi 2006, Yogyakarta, BPPTK, pp. 171-183, 2007 (unpublished).
-  H. Nakamichi, M. Iguchi, H. Triastuty, H. Kuswandarto, I. Mulyana, U. Rosadi, H. Gunawan, G. Suantika, N. Aisyah, A. Budi-Santoso, and I. G. M. Agung Nandaka, “A Newly Installed Seismic and Geodetic Observational System at Five Indonesian Volcanoes as part of the SATREPS Project,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.14, No.1, 2018.
-  A. Budi-Santoso, P. Lesage, S. Dwiyono, Sumarti, Subrandriyo, Surono, P. Jousset, and J.-P. Metaxian, “Analysis of the seismic activity associated with the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano,” Java J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.261, pp. 153-170, 2013
-  M. Commer, S. L. Helwig, A. Hördt, C. Scholl, and B. Tezkan, “New results on the resistivity structure of Merapi Volcano (Indonesia), derived from three-dimensional restricted inversion of long-offset transient electromagnetic data,” Geophysical J. Int., Vol.167, No.3, pp. 1172-1187, 2006.
-  K. Kamo, K. Ishihara, M. Iguchi, T. Takayama, O. Suganda, W. Tjetjep, Subandriyo, Suharno, and A. Ratdomopurbo, “A short note on comparison of volcanic earthquakes originated at Merapi Volcano Indonesia and Sakurajima Volacano, Japan,” Proc. of Japan-Indonesia Joint Research on Natural Hazards Prediction and Mitigation, 1994.
-  A. S. Daag, M. T. Dolan, E. P. Laguerta, G. P. Meeker, C. G. Newhall, J. S. Pallister, and R. U. Solidum, “Growth of a Postclimactic Lava Dome at Mount Pinatubo, July-October 1992,” C. G. Newhall and R. S. Punongbayan (eds.), Fire and Mud, pp. 647-664, 1996.
-  M. Edmonds, C. Oppenheimer, D. M. Pyle, R. A. Herd, and G. Thompson, “SO2 emissions from Soufrière Hills Volcano and their relationship to conduit permeability, hydrothermal interaction and degassing regime,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.124, Issues 1-2, pp. 23-43, 2003.
-  M. Hellweg, “The polarization of volcanic seismic signals: medium or source?,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.128, pp. 1297-1300, 2003.
-  J. W. Neuberg, H. Tuffen, L. Collier, D. Green, T. Powell, and D. Dingwell, “The trigger mechanism of low-frequency earthquakes on Montserrat,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.153, pp. 37-50, 2006.
-  N. M. Shapiro, D. V. Droznin, S. Y. Droznina, S. L. Senyukov, A. A. Gusev, and E. I. Gordeev, “Deep and shallow long-period volcanic seismicity linked by fluid-pressure transfer,” Nature Geoscience, Vol.10, pp. 442-445, DOI:10.1038/ngeo2952, 2017.