Vehicle Model Calibration in the Frequency Domain and its Application to Large-Scale IRI Estimation
Boyu Zhao*, Tomonori Nagayama*,†, Masashi Toyoda**, Noritoshi Makihata***, Muneaki Takahashi***, and Masataka Ieiri***
*Department of Civil Engineering, the University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
**Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
***Infrastructure solutions Division, JIP Techno Science Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
A smartphone-based Dynamic Response Intelligent Monitoring System (iDRIMS) was developed to conduct road evaluations with high efficiency and reasonable accuracy . iDRIMS estimates the International Roughness Index (IRI) based on vehicle responses measured with an iOS application, which obtains three-axis acceleration, angular velocity, and GPS with accurate sampling timing. However, the robustness and accuracy was limited. In this paper, the iDRIMS was improved mainly by employing frequency domain analysis. The algorithm consists of two steps. First, a half car (HC) model was selected as the vehicle model, and vehicle parameters were identified through driving tests over a portable hump of known size. In contrast to the previous approach of parameter identification in the time domain using Unscented Kalman Filter, the parameters were optimized to minimize the difference between the simulation and measured hump responses in the frequency domain, using a genetic algorithm. Then, IRI was estimated by measuring the vertical acceleration responses of ordinary vehicles. The measured acceleration was converted into the acceleration root mean square (RMS) of the sprung mass of a standard quarter car (QC) by multiplying a transfer function. The transfer function, estimated through the simulation of the identified HC model, as opposed to QC model in previous approaches, reflected the vehicle pitching motions and sensor installation location. The RMS was further converted to IRI based on the correlation between these values. Numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the performance in terms of various driving speeds and sensor locations. The experiment was conducted at a 13 km road by comparing three types of vehicles and a profiler. Inaccurate IRI estimation at the speed change section was experimentally investigated and compensated. Furthermore, the improved method was applied to 72 vehicles that were driven more than 180,000 km per year. A data collection and analysis platform was built, which successfully collected and analyzed large-scale data with high efficiency. The results from both numerical simulation and real case application show that the improved method accurately estimates IRI with high robustness and efficiency.
-  B. Zhao, T. Nagayama, S. Takada, M. Takahashi, and N. Makihata, “A method of response-based road profile estimation using multiple observables,” Proc. of the 11th East Asia-Pacific Conf. on Structural Engineering and Construction (EASEC-14), 2016.
-  A. González, E. J. O’brien, Y. Y. Li, and K. Cashell, “The use of vehicle acceleration measurements to estimate road roughness,” Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol.46, No.6, pp. 483-499, 2008.
-  H. M. Ngwangwa, P. S. Heyns, F. J. J. Labuschagne, and G. K. Kululanga, “Reconstruction of road defects and road roughness classification using vehicle responses with artificial neural networks simulation,” Journal of Terramechanics, Vol.47, No.2, pp. 97-111, 2010.
-  M. Yousefzadeh, S. Azadi, and A. Soltani, “Road profile estimation using neural network algorithm,” Journal of mechanical science and technology, Vol.24, No.3, pp. 743-754, 2010.
-  M. Doumiati, A. Victorino, A. Charara, and D. Lechner, “Estimation of road profile for vehicle dynamics motion: experimental validation,” American Control Conf. (ACC), pp. 5237-5242, IEEE, 2011.
-  H. Imine, Y. Delanne, and N. K. M’sirdi, “Road profile input estimation in vehicle dynamics simulation,” Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol.44, No.4, pp. 285-303, 2006.
-  K. Tomiyama, A. Kawamura, and T. Ohiro, “Longitudinal true profile estimation by a mobile profilometer for expressways,” Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. E1 (Pavement Engineering), Vol.70, No.3, 2015.
-  Y. Fujino, K. Kitagawa, T. Furukawa, and H. Ishii, “Development of vehicle intelligent monitoring system (VIMS),” Smart Structures and Materials, pp. 148-157, Int. Society for Optics and Photonics, 2005.
-  H. Asakawa, Y. Fujino, T. Nagayama, and M. Ohsumi, “Development and application of road monitoring system using dynamic response of vehicles,” 11th East Asia-Pacific Conf. on Structural Engineering and Construction, EASEC-11, 2008.
-  T. Nagayama, A. Miyajima, S. Kimura, Y. Shimada, and Y. Fujino, “Road condition evaluation using the vibration response of ordinary vehicles and synchronously recorded movies,” Proc. of the SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+ Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, 86923A, Monitoring, Int. Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013.
-  B. Zhao, S. Takada, and T. Nagayama, “Development of response-based road profile estimation using multiple observables,” JSCE Annual Meeting at Okayama, 2015.
-  N. Makihata, B. Zhao, M. Toyoda, M. Takahashi, M. Ieiri, and T. Nagayama, “Large-scale road surface evaluation using dynamic responses of commercial vehicles,” ICE Virtual Library essential engineering knowledge, 2016.
-  T. Nagayama, B. Spencer Jr, K. Mechitov, and G. Agha, “Middleware services for structural health monitoring using smart sensors,” Smart Struct Syst., Vol.5, pp. 119-137, 2009.
-  http://www.bridge.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/nagayama/iDRIMSResampler.pdf [accessed May 23, 2017]
-  J. H. Holland, “Genetic algorithms,” Scientific American, Vol.267, No.1, pp. 66-72, 1992.
-  M. W. Sayers, T. D. Gillespie, and W. D. Paterson, “Guidelines for conducting and calibrating road roughness measurements,” No.Technical Paper, 46, 1986.
-  ISO-8608, “Mechanical vibration-Road surface profiles-Reporting of measured data,” 1995.
-  https://www.nichireki.co.jp/product/consult/consult_list05/consult05_01.html [accessed May 23, 2017]