single-dr.php

JDR Vol.12 No.1 pp. 79-89
(2017)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2017.p0079

Paper:

Damage Assessment of Road Bridges Subjected to the 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake Tsunami

Gaku Shoji*,† and Tomoharu Nakamura**

*Division of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba
1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan

Corresponding author

**Former Graduate Student, Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

Received:
August 11, 2016
Accepted:
December 8, 2016
Published:
February 1, 2017
Keywords:
the 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake Tsunami, road bridge, inundation depth, damage function, the Nankai Trough earthquake tsunami
Abstract

The authors assessed the tsunami damage to a girder-type road bridge, focusing on a washed-away deck that failed during the 2011 Tohoku Pacific earthquake tsunami. The inundation depth, ratio of inundation depth to girder elevation, and flow velocity were used as the three indices of the tsunami wave load acting on a road bridge deck. A gently shaped tsunami waveform was selected at a wave-front with a water surface level increase rate of less than 2.0 m/min. The damage ratio was computed for the above three indices, as defined by the number of washed-away bridges divided by the total number of bridges exposed to the tsunami. Based on statistical analysis for the damage ratio data, damage functions using the three indices were proposed. In addition, the spatial distribution of physical wash-away damage to road bridges by the anticipated Nankai Trough earthquake tsunami was shown by applying the derived damage functions.

Cite this article as:
G. Shoji and T. Nakamura, “Damage Assessment of Road Bridges Subjected to the 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake Tsunami,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.12, No.1, pp. 79-89, 2017.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), “The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake ∼first report∼,” 2016, http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/News/2011_Earthquake_01.html [accessed August 11, 2016]
  2. [2] H. Matsutomi and N. Shuto, “Inundation Depth Due to a Tsunami and Houses,” Procs. of Coastal Engineering, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), Vol.41, pp. 246-250, 1994 (in Japanese).
  3. [3] G. Shoji and T. Moriyama, “Evaluation of the Structural Fragility of a Bridge Structure Subjected to a Tsunami Wave Load,” J. of Natural Disaster Science, Vol.29, No.2, pp. 73-81. 2007.
  4. [4] J. E. Padgett and A. Spiller, “Empirical Evidence from Hurricane Katrina on the Failure Probability of Bridges under Storm Surge Loading,” Procs. of the 10th Int. Conf. on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR), Osaka, Japan, September, 2009.
  5. [5] S. Koshimura, Y. Namegaya, and H. Yanagisawa, “Fragility Functions for Tsunami Damage Estimation,” J. of Hydraulic, Coastal and Environmental Engineering (B), Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), Vol.65, No.4, pp. 320-331, 2009 (in Japanese).
  6. [6] G. Shoji, T. Nakamura, and K. Takahashi, “Tsunami Damage Assessment on Road Structures in the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake,” Proc. of the Int. Symposium on Engineering Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, pp. 1711-1721, 2012.
  7. [7] M. Akiyama, D. M. Frangopol, M. Arai, and S. Koshimura, “Reliability of Bridges under Tsunami Hazards: Emphasis on the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.29, No.S1, pp. S295-S314, 2013.
  8. [8] Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI), “The Base Map Information Download Service,” 5m Interval DEM Data, 2012 (in Japanese), http://fgd.gsi.go.jp/download/ [accessed August 11, 2016]
  9. [9] The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey Group, “The 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Information,” Results of Tsunami Surveys, 2011, http://www.coastal.jp/tsunami2011/ [accessed August 11, 2016]
  10. [10] T. Nakamura and G. Shoji, “Clarification of Tsunami Waveforms Acting on a Bridge Structure Subjected to the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami,” J. of Structural Engineering & Earthquake Engineering (A1), Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), Vol.70, No.4, pp. I_210-I_218, 2014 (in Japanese).
  11. [11] S. Koshimura, “TUNAMI-CODE Tohoku University’s Numerical Analysis Model for Investigation of Tsunami,” Disaster Control Research Center (DCRC), Tohoku University, 2009.
  12. [12] The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC), “The General Bathymetry Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO),” The GEBCO_08 Grid, 2008, http://www.gebco.net/ [accessed August 11, 2016]
  13. [13] Japan Hydraulic Association (JHA), “Digital Topography of Ocean Floor M7000 Series,” Contour Maps, 2011 (in Japanese).
  14. [14] Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI), “The Base Map Information Download Service,” 10m Interval DEM Data, 2012 (in Japanese), http://fgd.gsi.go.jp/download/ [accessed August 11, 2016]
  15. [15] Y. Fujii, K. Satake, S. Sakai, M. Shinohara, and T. Kanazawa, “Tsunami Source of the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake,” Earth Planets Space, Vol.63, pp. 815-820, 2011.
  16. [16] Y. Okada, “Surface Deformation Due to Shear and Tensile Faults in a Half-Space,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.75, pp. 1135-1154, 1995.
  17. [17] Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI), “Inundation Area Maps,” 2011 (in Japanese), http://www.gsi.go.jp/kikaku/kikaku60003.html [accessed August 11, 2016]
  18. [18] Japan Society of Geoinformatics (JSGI), “2011 Tsunami in East Japan,” Inundation Areas, 2012, http://www.jsgi-map.org/tsunami/google_tile_en.html [accessed August 11, 2016]
  19. [19] The Tsunami Evaluation Subcommittee, “Tsunami Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants in Japan,” Method for Verifying the Assessment Procedure Based on Historical Tsunamis, The Nuclear Civil Engineering Committee, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), 2012, http://committees.jsce.or.jp/ceofnp/system/files/JSCE_Tsunami_060519.pdf [accessed August 11, 2016]
  20. [20] I. Aida, “Numerical Experiments of Historical Tsunamis Generated off the Coast of the Tokaido District,” Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Vol.56, No.2, pp. 367-390, 1981 (in Japanese).
  21. [21] Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, “Damage Estimation in the Nankai Trough Earthquake,” 2012 (in Japanese), http://www.bousai.go.jp/jishin/nankai/model/index.html [accessed August 11, 2016]
  22. [22] Orkney, Inc., Road Network Data, 2009 (in Japanese).

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Dec. 07, 2018