Wave Effects on the Storm Surge Simulation: A Case Study of Typhoon Khanun
Fuchun Lai*, Luying Liu*, and Haijiang Liu**,†
*Ocean College, Zhejiang University
866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China
**College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China
To study wave effects on storm surge, a depth-averaged 2D numerical model based on the Delft3D-FLOW model was utilized to simulate near-shore hydrodynamic responses to Typhoon Khanun. The Delft3D-WAVE model is coupled dynamically with the FLOW model and the enhanced vertical mixing, mass flux and wave set-up were considered as wave-current interaction in the coupled model. After verifying storm surge wind and pressure formulae of storm surge and optimizing calibration parameters, three numerical tests with different control variables were conducted. Model tests show that wave effects must be considered in numerical simulation. Simulating the flow-wave coupled model showed that wave-induced surge height could be as large as 0.4 m in near-shore areas for Typhoon Khanun. Comparing to its contribution to the peak surge height, wave-induced surge plays a more significant role to total surge height with respect to the time-averaged surge height in storm events. Wave-induced surge (wave setup) is in advance of typhoon propagation and becomes significant even before the typhoon landfall. Model tests demonstrate that the wave effects are driven predominantly by the storm wave, while the boundary wave contribution is rather limited.
-  L. Ye and F. Yu, “The long-range change and forecast of storm surge disasters in China,” Marine Forecasts, Vol.10, pp. 89-96, 2002 (in Chinese with English abstract).
-  H. R. Kivisild, “Wind effect on shallow bodies of water: with special reference to lake Okeechobee,” Elander, Vol.159, 1954.
-  W. Hansen, “Theorie zur Errechnung des Wasserstandes und der Strömungen in Randmeeren nebst Anwendungen1,” Tellus, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 287-300, 1956.
-  R. G. Dean and R. A. Dalrymple, “Coastal processes with engineering applications,” Cambridge University Press, 2004.
-  R. J. Weaver, “Effect of wave force on storm surge,” Diss. University of Florida, 2004.
-  R. Nakamura, O. Takahiro, T. Shibayama, E. Miguel, and H. Takagi, “Evaluation of storm surge caused by typhoon Yolanda (2013) and using weather-Storm surge-Wave-Tide model,” Procedia Engineering, Vol.116, pp. 373-380, 2015.
-  J. J. Yoon and K. C. Jun, “Coupled storm surge and wave simulations for the Southern Coast of Korea,” Ocean Science Journal, Vol.50, pp. 9-28, 2015.
-  Y. Sun, C. Chen, R. C. Beardsley, Q. Xu, J. Qi, and H. Lin, “Impact of current-wave interaction on storm surge simulation: A case study for Hurricane Bob,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol.118, pp. 2685-2701, 2013.
-  L. T. Phan, D. N. Slinn, and S. W. Kline, “Wave effects on hurricane storm surge simulation,” Advances in Hurricane Engineering@ sLearning from Our Past. ASCE, pp. 753-764, 2013.
-  Y. P. Sheng, V. Alymov, and V. A. Paramygin, “Simulation of storm surge, wave, currents, and inundation in the Outer Banks and Chesapeake Bay during Hurricane Isabel in 2003: The importance of waves,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol.115, 2010.
-  M. S. Longuet-Higgins and R. W. Stewart, “Radiation stresses in water waves; a physical discussion, with applications,” Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts, Vol.11, pp. 529-562, 1964.
-  M. A. Donelan, F. W. Dobson, S. D. Smith, and R. J. Anderson, “On the dependence of sea-surface roughness on wave development,” J. Phys. Oceanogr., Vol.23, pp. 2143-2149, 1993.
-  W. D. Grant and O. S. Madsen, “Combined wave and current interaction with a rough bottom,” J. Geophys. Res., Vol.84, pp. 1797-1808, 1979.
-  R. P. Signell, R. C. Beardsley, H. C. Graber, and A. Capotondi, “Effect of wave-current interaction on steady wind-driven circulation in narrow, shallow embayments,” J. Geophys. Res., Vol.95, pp. 9671-9678, 1990.
-  R. H. Weisberg and L. Zheng, “Hurricane storm surge simulations for Tampa Bay,” Estuar Coast, Vol.29, pp. 899-913, 2006.
-  J. J. Westerink, R. A. Luettich, J. C. Feyen, J. H. Atkinson, C. Dawson, H. J. Roberts et al., “A basin-to channel-scale unstructured grid hurricane storm surge model applied to southern Louisiana,” Mon Weather Rev, Vol.136, pp. 833-864, 2008.
-  Hydraulics, Delft, “Delft3D-FLOW User Manual,” Delft, the Netherlands, 2014.
-  Z. H. Jiang, F. Hua, and P. Qu, “A new scheme for adjusting the tropical cyclone parameters,” Advances in Marine Science, Vol.26, pp. 1-7, 2008 (in Chinese with English abstract).
-  T. Fujita, “Pressure distribution within typhoon,” Geophysical Magazine, Vol.23, pp. 437-451, 1952.
-  X. Wang, Q. Yin, and B. Zhang, “Research and applications of a forecasting model of typhoon surges in China seas,” Advances in Water Science, Vol.2, pp. 1-10, 1991 (in Chinese with English abstract).
-  T. Ueno, “Numerical computations of storm surges in Tosa Bay,” Journal of Oceanographical Society of Japan, Vol.37, pp. 61-73, 1981.
-  J. L. Irish, B. P. Williams, and A. Militello, “Regional-scale storm-surge modeling of Long Island, New York, USA,” Coastal Engineering Conf., Vol.29, 2004.
-  Y. Huang, R. H. Weisberg, and L. Zheng, “Coupling of surge and waves for an Ivan-like hurricane impacting the Tampa Bay, Florida region,”Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol.115, No.C12, 2010.