Development of a Control System and Interface Design Based on an Electric Wheelchair
Jinseok Woo, Kyosuke Yamaguchi, and Yasuhiro Ohyama
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Technology
1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982, Japan
Recently, personal mobility has been researched and developed to make short-distance travel within the community more comfortable and convenient. However, from the viewpoint of personal mobility, there are problems such as difficulty in picking up items while shopping when operating the joystick for shopping and the inability to use hands freely. Accordingly, because the speed of personal mobility can be controlled by foot stepping like an accelerator pedal, we developed an electric wheelchair system that can control the speed by pedal operation. Furthermore, we developed a control system that considers the ride quality using an electric wheelchair with pedal control. In this study, the proposed method is detailed in three parts. Firstly, to develop the pedal mechanism, a potentiometer was used to detect the angle of the pedal mechanism, and a spring mechanism was designed for return to its original position after the pedal was pushed. Next, we propose a feedback control system that considers the ride quality of the operator. In addition, we integrated the system with a smart device-based robot system to realize the mobility as a service (MaaS). Finally, we present several examples of the system and discuss the applicability of the proposed system.
-  R. Dowling, J. Irwin, I. Faulks, and R. Howitt, “Use of personal mobility devices for first-and-last mile travel: The Macquarie-Ryde trial,” Proc. of the 2015 Australasian Road Safety Conf. (ARSC2015), 13pp., 2015.
-  S. Yokota, H. Hashimoto, Y. Ohyama, and J. She, “Electric Wheelchair Controlled by Human Body Motion-Classification of Body Motion and Improvement of Control Method,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.22, No.4, pp. 439-446, doi: 10.20965/jrm.2010.p0439, 2010.
-  T. Tomizawa, S. Muramatsu, M. Sato, M. Hirai, S. Kudoh, and T. Suehiro, “Development of an intelligent senior-car in a pedestrian walkway,” Advanced robotics, Vol.26, No.14, pp. 1577-1602, 2012.
-  S. Guidon, H. Becker, H. Dediu, and K. W. Axhausen, “Electric bicycle-sharing: a new competitor in the urban transportation market? An empirical analysis of transaction data,” Transportation Research Record, Vol.2673, No.4, pp. 15-26, 2019.
-  Á. Aguilera-García, J. Gomez, and N. Sobrino, “Exploring the adoption of moped scooter-sharing systems in Spanish urban areas,” Cities, Vol.96, Article No.102424, 2020.
-  H. Ito and A. Reid, “Promoting an environmental education project: the eco-picture diary in Yokohama City, Japan,” Environmental Education Research, Vol.26, No.11, pp. 1656-1675, 2020.
-  C. Soler, “Health 4.0 oriented to non-surgical treatment,” Proc. of the ROBOT 2017: 3rd Iberian Robotics Conf., pp. 513-523, 2017.
-  M. Niitsuma, T. Ochi, M. Yamaguchi, and K. Iwamoto, “Design of mutual interaction between a user and smart electric wheelchair,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.16, No.2, pp. 305-312, doi: 10.20965/jaciii.2012.p0305, 2012.
-  T. Fujikawa, M. Ishikawa, and S. Nakajima, “Mobility Support System for Personal Mobility Vehicles,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.27, No.6, pp. 715-716, doi: 10.20965/jrm.2015.p0715, 2015.
-  V. Renaudin, A. Dommes, and M. Guilbot, “Engineering, human,and legal challenges of navigation systems for personal mobility,” IEEE Trans. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol.18, No.1, pp. 177-191, 2016.
-  J. Santa, L. Bernal-Escobedo, and R. Sanchez-Iborra, “On-board unit to connect personal mobility vehicles to the IoT,” Procedia Computer Science, Vol.175, pp. 173-180, 2020.
-  Y. Shen, H. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Integrating shared autonomous vehicle in public transportation system: A supply-side simulation of the first-mile service in Singapore,” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol.113, pp. 125-136, 2018.
-  Y. Li and T. Voege, “Mobility as a service (MaaS): Challenges of implementation and policy required,” J. of Transportation Technologies, Vol.7, No.2, pp. 95-106, 2017.
-  T. Kusakabe, K. Watanabe, S. Matsuhashi, R. Onodera, and M. Shishido, “Development of Operation System for Electric Wheelchair by Voluntary Movements of Head,” Proc. of the 7th IIAE Int. Conf. on Industrial Application Engineering 2019, pp. 207-211, 2019.
-  Y. Ogata, M. Katsumura, K. Yano, T. Nakao, A. Hamada, and K. Torii, “Joystick Grip for Electric Wheelchair for Tension-Athetosis-Type Cerebral Palsy,” 2019 41st Annual Int. Conf. of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), pp. 1666-1669, 2019.
-  T. Chaloem, S. Yokota, H. Hashimoto, and D. Chugo, “Oscillation suppression control for electric wheelchair using human body motion interface,” 2018 IEEE Int. Conf. on IndustrialTechnology (ICIT), pp. 1991-1996, 2018.
-  M. F. Hikmawan and A. S. Nugraha, “Analysis of electric wheelchair passanger comfort with a half car model approach,” 2016 Int. Conf. on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (ICSEEA), pp. 76-80, 2016.
-  Y. Morales, A. Watanabe, F. Ferreri, J. Even, K. Shinozawa, and N. Hagita, “Passenger discomfort map for autonomous navigation in a robotic wheelchair,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol.103, pp. 13-26, 2018.
-  D. Kushner, “The making of Arduino,” IEEE Spectrum, October 26, 2011, https://spectrum.ieee.org/the-making-of-arduino [accessed August 20, 2021]
-  K. Nishimura, N. Kubota, and J. Woo, “Design support system for emotional expression of robot partners using interactive evolutionary computation,” 2012 IEEE Int. Conf. on Fuzzy Systems, doi: 10.1109/FUZZ-IEEE.2012.6251246, 2012.
-  N. Kubota, T. Mori, and A. Yorita, “Conversation system for robot partners based on informationally structured space,” 2011 IEEE Workshop on Robotic Intelligence in Informationally Structured Space, pp. 77-84, 2011.
-  J. Woo, Y. Ohyama, and N. Kubota, “Robot Partner Development Platform for Human-Robot Interaction Based on a User-Centered Design Approach,” Applied Sciences, Vol.10, No.22, Article No.7992, 2020.
-  J. Woo, Y. Abe, Y. Ohyama, and N. Kubota, “Design and Usage Support System of Robot Partners based on a User-centric Modular Structure,” 2020 Int. Symp. on Community-centric Systems (CcS), doi: 10.1109/CcS49175.2020.9231347, 2020.
-  J. Woo, K. Wada, and N. Kubota, “Robot partner system for elderlypeople care by using sensor network,” 2012 4th IEEE RAS and EMBS Int. Conf. on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), pp. 1329-1334, 2012.
-  S. D. Gosling, P. J. Rentfrow, and W. B. Swann, Jr., “A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains,” J. of Research in Personality, Vol.37, No.6, pp. 504-528, 2003.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.