Experimental Study on Physical Burden of Transfer Assistance for Excretion – Comparison Between Transfer-Type Wheelchair and Ordinary Wheelchair –
Emi Ozawa*1,*2,†, Manabu Chikai*2, Hiroshi Kobayashi*3, Hiroshi Miyazawa*3, Nozomi Koizumi*3, Takashi Miyajima*4, Akihiko Kitano*4, and Shuichi Ino*2
*1Showa-Inan General Hospital
3230 Akaho, Komagane, Nagano 399-4117, Japan
*2National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan
*3Idea Life Care Co., Ltd.
4-1-2 Okaya, Nagano 394-0004, Japan
*4Nagano Prefecture General Industrial Technology Center
1-7-7 Matsumoto, Nomizonishi, Nagano 399-0066, Japan
Assisting the elderly to or from a toilet for excretion is a heavy burden, and staff at nursing homes and families at home have problems such as backache and tiredness. There are several previous studies on standing up from a chair, bed, or toilet seat but almost no studies on the series of actions required for excretion (i.e., from a bed to a transfer apparatus and from the transfer apparatus to the toilet seat). The difference in the physical burden (muscular strength) for helpers when using the Norisukesan II, a transfer-type wheelchair developed in collaboration with the authors, and an ordinary wheelchair when transferring a patient to or from a toilet for excretion was studied by biometrics with surface electromyogram (EMG) patterns. We chose a total of 11 healthy adult examinees, 10 males and one female, with an average age of 47.7±9.7. Muscle activity was measured at eight positions: right and left biceps brachii muscles, right and left quadriceps femoris muscles, upper right and left trapezius muscles, and right and left waist muscles. The results showed that if the transfer-type wheelchair was used, the muscle activity of the helpers’ biceps brachii muscles decreased by 70%, that of the quadriceps femoris muscles decreased by 60%, that of the trapezius muscles decreased by 70%, and that of the waist muscles decreased by 40%, when compared to using the ordinary wheelchair. It was therefore quantitatively clarified that assisting patients with the transfer-type wheelchair could reduce the assisting burden significantly, as the helpers did not have to tightly hold or turn the patients.
-  Y. Suzuki and J. Ohnishi, “Evaluation of Patient’s Risk of Falling in Acute Care,” Geriatric Medicine, Vol.47, No.6, pp. 711-715, 2009 (in Japanese).
-  I. Miyano and M. Nishinaga, “Fall Prevention Method in Chronic Care Using Assessment Sheet,” Geriatric Medicine, Vol.47, No.6, pp. 717-720, 2009 (in Japanese).
-  T. Hiramatsu, K. Izumi, and M. Shogenji, “Prevention of Falls in the Institutionalized Elderly: Fall Related to Excretion and Fall Person’s Characteristics,” J. of Japan Academy of Gerontological Nursing, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 47-52, 2006 (in Japanese).
-  METI and MHLW, “Robotic Devices for Nursing Care Project, http://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2012/1122_05.html, [Accessed May 31, 2016].
-  R. Nozawa and S. Yamamoto, “The Relationship of Lower Limb and Trunk Movements in Sit-to-Stand Performed by the Young and Elderly,” Rigakuryoho Kagaku, Vol.27, No.1, pp. 31-35, 2012 (in Japanese).
-  H. Fujimoto, T. Kiduka, Y. Yokoji, T. Yokoi, and H. Ito, “The Motion Analysis of Standing Up and Sitting Down Under Assistance by a Physical Therapist,” Trans. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series C, Vol.66, No.650, pp. 128-134, 2000 (in Japanese).
-  S. Kojima and H. Takeda, “Sit-to-Stand Movement in Elderly Adults,” Rigakuryoho Kagaku, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 85-88, 1998 (in Japanese).
-  K. Maruta, “The Influence of Seat Angle on Forward Trunk Inclination During Sit-to-Stand,” Physical Therapy Japan, Vol.31, No.1, pp. 21-28, 2004 (in Japanese).
-  M. Chikai, E. Ozawa, K. Doi, S. Shimada, C. Wada, and S. Ino, “Measurement of the Head Movement during Sit-to-stand Motion on Toilet Seat,” IEICE Technical Report, Well-being Information Technology, Vol.115, No.354, pp. 53-57, 2015 (in Japanese).
-  T. Tsuruga, S. Ino, T. Ifukube, M. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Izumi, and M. Muro, “A basic study for a robotic transfer aid system based on human motion analysis,” Advanced Robotics, Vol.14, No.7, pp. 579-595, 2001.
-  S. Ino, M. Sato, M. Hosono, and T. Izumi, “Development of a soft metal hydride actuator using a laminate bellows for rehabilitation systems,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol.136, Issue 1, pp. 86-91, 2009.
-  Y. Yamada, O. Matsumoto, K. Homma, E. Ono, L. Suwoong, M. Horimoto, T. Suzuki, N. Kanehira, and T. Suzuki, “Development of Toilet-assist,” J. of the Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.26, No.8, pp. 883-884, 2008 (in Japanese).
-  N. Motegi, S. Yasuda, and T. Misawa, “Experimental Study of Assistant Aids and a New Nursing Method in Nursing Care Work,” The J. of Science of Labour, Vol.88, No.3, pp. 81-93, 2012 (in Japanese).
-  N. Yamazaki, S. Yamamoto, and T. Inoue, “Measurement of Transferring Motions and Evaluation of Caregiver’s Lower-back Load,” Biomechanisms, Vol.16, pp. 195-205, 2002 (in Japanese).
-  T. Inoue and N. Yamazaki, “Physical Burden of Medical Staff during Transfer Assistance with Transfer Tool,” J. of the Society of Biomechanisms, Vol.25, No.3, pp. 123-129, 2001 (in Japanese).
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.