JACIII Vol.19 No.2 pp. 293-300
doi: 10.20965/jaciii.2015.p0293


Motion Control of a Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Using Equivalent-Input-Disturbance Approach

Qi Shi*, Zhejun Fang*, Jinhua She**, Junya Imani**, and Yasuhiro Ohyama**

*Graduate School of Bionics, Computer and Media Sciences, Tokyo University of Technology
1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982, Japan
**School of Computer Science, Tokyo University of Technology
Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982, Japan

June 12, 2014
December 16, 2014
Online released:
March 20, 2015
March 20, 2015
compensation of nonlinearity, equivalent input disturbance (EID), estimation of nonlinearity, NXTway-GS, wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP)

This paper presents a new method for controlling the motion of a wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) based on the equivalent-input-disturbance (EID) approach. Coordinate transformation first transforms the WIP into a simple nonlinear system divided into linear and nonlinear parts. The nonlinear part is then treated as a state-and-input-dependent disturbance, and the EID approach is used to estimate and compensate it. Simulation results of an NXTway-GS demonstrate the validity of the method.

    [1] F. Grasser, A. D’rrigo, S. Colombi, and A. C. Rufer, “JOE: A Mobile, Inverted Pendulum,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electrionic, Vol.49, No.1, pp. 107-114, 2002.
    [2], Segway the leader in personal, green transportation, 2014, Available at:
    [3] K. Pathak, J. Franch, and S. K. Agrawal, “Velocity and Position Control of a Wheeled Inverted Pendulum by Partial Feedback Linearization,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics, Vol.21, No.3, pp. 505-513, 2005.
    [4] A. Sekiguchi and M. Tokita, “Control of Two Coaxial Wheeled Inverted Pendulum,” J. of JACT, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 15-22, 2008.
    [5] A. Shimada and C. Yongyai, “Motion Control of Inverted Pendulum Robots Using a Kalman Filter Based Disturbance Observer,” SICE J. of Control, Measurement, and System Integration, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 50-55, 2009.
    [6] J. Huang, Z.-H. Guan, T. Matsuno, T. Fukuda, and K. Sekiyama, “Sliding-Mode Velocity Control of Mobile-Wheeled Inverted-Pendulum Systems,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics, Vol.26, No.4, pp. 750-758, 2010.
    [7] Y. Yamamoto, “NXTway-GS Model-Based Design: Control of self-balancing two-wheeled robot built with LEGO Mindstorms NXT,” Cybernet Systems Company, LTD., Revision 1.0, 2008.
    [8] J. She, X. Xin, and Y. Pan, “Equivalent-Input-Disturbance Approach: Analysis and Application to Disturbance Rejection in Dual-Stage Feed Drive Control System,” IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, Vol.16, No.2, pp. 330-340, 2011.
    [9] J. She, A. Zhang, X. Lai, and M. Wu, “Global stabilization of 2-DOF underactuated mechanical systems--an equivalent-input-disturbance approach,” Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol.69, Iss. 1-2, pp. 495-509, 2012.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Mar. 22, 2017