Induction of Cooperative Behavior Through Exchange of Nonverbal Information
Ergonomics Laboratory, Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, 3-4-1 Ozuka-higashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-3194, Japan
In this study, the process of inducing mutual cooperation among workers in a remote work environment (telework) was experimentally examined. The gambling task developed by Payne was used, and subjects were not given information regarding their partners’ reputations. In addition, subjects and their partners completed the task in different rooms to avoid the effects of verbal and nonverbal communication. Subjects knew only which buttons their partners pushed, i.e., their behavior in the remote work environment. The number of experimental trials was 100. We found that cooperative behavior was induced by the 33rd trial. Although subjects did not know their partners’ reputations, cooperative behavior arose as subjects saw which buttons their partners pushed. In a control experiment, the subjects competed with a computer, and the results suggested that cooperative behavior was not induced when a human subject competed with a computer. Overall, the results suggest that an exchange of nonverbal behavioral information was necessary for inducing cooperative behavior.
-  M. Deutsch and R. M. Krauss, “The effect of threat upon interpersonal bargaining,” J. of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol.61, No.2, pp. 181-189, 1960.
-  K. Kiyokawa, H. Takemura, and N. Yokoya, “An Empirical study on the effect of feeling a partner’s gaze in face-to-face collaboration within shared virtual/augmented environments,” ITE Technical Report, Vol.22, No.47, pp. 13-18, 1998.
-  R. E. Kraut, M. D. Miller, and J. Siegel, “Collaboration in performance of physical tasks: effects on outcomes and communication,” Proc. of the 1996 ACM Conf. on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 57-66, 1996.
-  T. Suzuki and S. Okazaki, “Way-finding behavior with verbal communication in a virtual maze,” J. of architecture, planning and environmental engineering, Vol.543, pp. 155-162, 2001.
-  M. Akiyama, “Cooperative decision-making process: An analysis of information search processes and recall of alternatives after choice,” Cognitive Studies, Vol.5, No.4, pp. 65-77, 1998.
-  M. Shinada and T. Kameda, “Emergence of frequency-dependent cooperative strategies in iterated social dilemma: An experimental study,” The Japanese J. of Psychology, Vol.74, No.1, pp. 71-76, 2003.
-  M. Matsuda and T. Yamagishi, “Trust and cooperation: An experimental study of PD with choice of dependence,” The Japanese J. of Psychology, Vol.72, No.5, pp. 413-421, 2001.
-  Y. Yamamoto, T. Matsui, K. Hiraki, S. Umeda, and Y. Anzai, “Interaction with a computer system: – A study of factors for pleasant interaction,” Cognitive Studies, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 107-120, 1994.
-  C. Nass, J. Steuer, L. Henriksen, and D. C. Dryer, “Machines, social attributions, and ethopoeia: performance assessments of computers subsequent to “self-” or “other-” evaluations,” Int. J. of Human- Computer Studies, Vol.40, pp. 543-559, 1994.
-  Y. Takeuchi, “Unaware interpersonal responses toward computer and its practical applications,” Technical report of IEICE, Vol.2002, No.5, pp. 25-30, 2002.
-  H. Tanaka and T. Kawahara, “Conformity in heart rate variability under online game without conversations,” Proc. of the ICROSSICE Int. Joint Conf. 2009, pp. 2121-2124, 2009.
-  S. Itai, H. Ogawa, and Y. Miwa, “Experimental research on generation of embodied coherence and co-share of the anticipation during the cooperative game,” The Trans. of Human Interface Society, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 497-508, 2008.
-  J. W. Payne, J. R. Bettman, and E. J. Johnson, “Adaptive strategy selection in decision making,” J. of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, Vol.14, No.3, pp. 534-552, 1988.
-  T. Yamazaki, M. Karashima, and M. Saitoh, “The influence of time constraints on the performance in decision making task,” The Japanese J. of Ergonomics, Vol.39, No.3, pp. 123-130, 2003.