Computational Models of Language Within Context and Context-Sensitive Language Understanding
Noriko Ito*, Toru Sugimoto**, Yusuke Takahashi***,
Shino Iwashita****, and Michio Sugeno*
*Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394, Japan
**Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
***Justsystem Corporation, Aoyama bldg. 1-2-3 Kita-Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8640, Japan
****Kyushu University, 4-9-1 Shiobaru, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8540, Japan
We propose two computational models – one of a language within context based on systemic functional linguistic theory and one of context-sensitive language understanding. The model of a language within context called the Semiotic Base characterizes contextual, semantic, lexicogrammatical, and graphological aspects of input texts. The understanding process is divided into shallow and deep analyses. Shallow analysis consists of morphological and dependency analyses and word concept and case relation assignment, mainly by existing natural language processing tools and machine-readable dictionaries. Results are used to detect the contextual configuration of input text in contextual analysis. This is followed by deep analyses of lexicogrammar, semantics, and concepts, conducted by referencing a subset of resources related to the detected context. Our proposed models have been implemented in Java and verified by integrating them into such applications as dialog-based question-and-answer (Q&A).
Shino Iwashita, and Michio Sugeno, “Computational Models of Language Within Context and Context-Sensitive Language Understanding,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.10, No.6, pp. 782-790, 2006.
-  M. Sugeno, “Verbalizing Computers: A Way to Everyday Language Computing,” in N. R. Pal, and M. Sugeno, editors, Advances in Soft Computing, pp. 117-120, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2002.
-  M. A. K. Halliday and C. M. I. M. Matthiessen, “An Introduction to Functional Grammar (3rd ed.),” Arnold, London, 2004.
-  Y. Takahashi and I. Kobayashi, “Text Generation Using Contextual Information,” Proc. of the Conference Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics (PACLING 2005), pp. 301-310, 2005.
-  M. A. K. Halliday and C. M. I. M. Matthiessen, “Construing Experience through Meaning: a Language-Based Approach to Cognition,” Cassell, London, 1999.
-  M. A. K. Halliday and R. Hasan, “Language, Context, and Text: Aspects of Language in a Socio-semiotic Perspective,” Oxford University Press, London, 1989.
-  M. A. K. Halliday, “Computing Meanings: Some Reflections on Past Experience and Present Prospect,” Proc. of the 2nd Conference of the Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 19-22, 1995, translated by K. Teruya, Journal of Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, Vol.12, No.5, pp. 615-634, 2000.
-  S. Eggins, “An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics,” Pinter, London, 1994.
-  D. G. Butt, “Parameters of Context: On Establishing the Similarities and Differences Between Social Processes,” The 31st International Systemic Functional Congress, 2004.
-  R. Hasan, “Speaking with Reference to Context,” in M. Ghadessy, editor, Text and Context in Functional Linguistics, pp. 219-329, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 1999.
-  C. M. I. M. Matthiessen, “Lexicogrammatical Cartography: English Systems,” International Language Science Publishers, Tokyo, 1995.
-  W. Mann and S. A. Thompson, “Rhetorical Structure Theory: Toward a Functional Theory of Text Organization,” Text, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 243-281, 1988.
-  K. Teruya, “Metafunctional Profile of the Grammar of Japanese,” in A. Caffarel, J. R. Martin, and C. M. I. M. Matthiessen, editors, Language Typology: A Functional Perspective, pp. 185-254, Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2004.
-  Y. Matsumoto, A. Kitauchi, T. Yamashita, and Y. Hirano, “Japanese Morphological Analysis System: ChaSen version 2.0 Manual,” NAIST Technical Report NAIST-IS-TR99009, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 1999.
-  T. Kudo and Y. Matsumoto, “Japanese Dependency Analysis using Cascaded Chunking,” Proc. of the 6th Conference on Natural Language Learning, pp. 63-69, 2002.
-  Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute Ltd., “The EDR Electronic Dictionary (ver. 3),” Tokyo, Japan, 2003.
-  M. O’Donnell, “Sentence Analysis and Generation: A Systemic Perspective,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Sydney, Department of Linguistics, Sydney, Australia, 1994.
-  N. Ito, T. Sugimoto, S. Iwashita, I. Kobayashi, and M. Sugeno, “A Model of Rhetorical Structure Analysis of Japanese Instructional Texts and its Application to a Smart Help System,” Proc. of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC 2004), pp. 3635-3640, 2004.
-  W. C. Mann and C. M. I. M. Matthiessen, “Demonstration of the Nigel Text Generation Computer Program,” in J. D. Benson, and W. S. Greaves, editors, Systemic Perspectives on Discourse, Vol.1, pp. 50-83, Ablex, Norwood, 1985.
-  R. P. Fawcett and G. H. Tucker, “Demonstration of GENESYS: A Very Large, Semantically Based Systemic Functional Generator,” Proc. of the 13th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING-90), pp. 47-49, 1990.
-  C. M. I. M. Matthiessen and J. A. Bateman, “Systemic Linguistics and Text Generation: Experiences from Japanese and English,” Pinter, London, 1991.
-  J. A. Bateman, “EnablingTechnology for Multilingual Natural Language Generation: The KPML Development Environment,” Journal of Natural Language Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 15-55, 1997.
-  T. Winograd, “Understanding Natural Language,” Academic Press, Massachusetts, 1972.
-  R. T. Kasper, “An Experimental Parser for Systemic Grammars,” Proc. of the 6th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pp. 309-312, 1988.
-  J. A. Bateman, M. Emele, and S. Momma, “The Nondirectional Representation of Systemic Functional Grammars and Semantics as Typed Feature Structures,” Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pp. 916-920, 1992.
-  T. F. O’Donoghue, “Semantic Interpretation in a Systemic Functional Grammar,” in T. Strzalkowski, editor, Reversible Grammar in Natural Language Processing, pp. 415-447, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1994.
-  D. Butt, M. A. K. Halliday, C. M. I. M. Matthiessen, K. Teruya, and C. Wu, “Review Report on the Research Results of the Lab for Language-Based Intelligent Systems, BSI, RIKEN,” in Review Report, pp. 112-125, Laboratory for Language-Based Intelligent Systems, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Japan, 2005.
-  N. Ito, T. Sugimoto, and M. Sugeno, “A Systemic-Functional Approach to Japanese Text Understanding,” in A. Gelbukh, editor, Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing, pp. 26-37, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2004.
-  M. Iwazume, I. Kobayashi, and M. Sugeno, “Natural Language Mediated Software Control,” Proc. of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC 2004), pp. 5560-5566, 2004.
-  T. Sugimoto, N. Ito, S. Iwashita, and M. Sugeno, “Script Generation Using Rhetorical Information in a Task Specification Text,” Proc. of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC 2004), pp. 2687-2692, 2004.
-  S. Iwashita, N. Ito, I. Kobayashi, T. Sugimoto, and M. Sugeno, “Everyday Language Help System Based on Software Manual,” Proc. of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC 2004), pp. 3635-3640, 2004.
-  J. R. Martin, “Mourning: HowWe Get Aligned,” Discourse Society, Vol.15, No.2-3, pp. 321-344, 2004.