Study on a Novel Peeling of Nano-Particle (PNP) Process for Localized Material Removal on a 4H-SiC Surface by Controllable Magnetic Field
*Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology
680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502, Japan
**Advanced Mechanical Division, Department of Intelligent and Control Systems, Kyushu Institute of Technology
This study proposes a novel process called peeling of nano-particle (PNP) to remove material locally on a hard material surface, such as silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, and gallium nitride (GaN), using the magnetic nano-particles in an aqueous solution controlled by magnetic fields. By the concept of the PNP process, magnetic fields are generated by two solenoid coils, which are sandwiched between the hard material sample, to pull the magnetic nano-particles to adhere to and then peel the material from the sample surface. In this experiment, iron (II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) particles with a diameter size in the range of 50–100 nm were dispersed in water, and the pH value was adjusted to 10 by potassium hydroxide (KOH). The particles were magnetically controlled on the silicon carbide (4H-SiC) surface by the magnetic fields at approximately 17 mT. To confirm the contact phenomenon of the Fe3O4 particles on the 4H-SiC surface during the PNP process, an optical system was developed by applying evanescent field microscopy to limit the observation range to approximately 300 nm from the 4H-SiC surface. According to the experimental observed results, the control phenomenon of two examples of Fe3O4 particles could be observed through their scattering light, which relates to the magnetic field generating sequence wherein the particles were magnetically pulled in and out of the 4H-SiC surface in the limit range of the evanescent field. During the particle pull to the surface, particles were able to be tracked in the X–Y directions during the approach to the 4H-SiC surface. The Brownian motion ranges in all directions of the particles decreased when the particles approached close to the surface due to the pulling magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field enforced the magnetic moment of the particle and limited their rotation.
-  F. Roccaforte, F. Giannazzo, and V. Raineri, “Nanoscale transport properties at silicon carbide interfaces,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol.43, No.22, 223001, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/43/22/223001
-  E. Brinksmeier, Y. Mutlugünes, F. Klocke, J. C. Aurich, P. Shore, and H. Ohmori, “Ultra-precision grinding,” CIRP Ann., Vol.59, No.2, pp. 652-671, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2010.05.001
-  S. Wang, Q. Zhang, Q. Zhao, and B. Guo, “Surface generation and materials removal mechanism in ultra-precision grinding of biconical optics based on slow tool servo with diamond grinding wheels,” J. Manuf. Process., Vol.72, pp. 1-14, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.10.010
-  K. Feng, T. Zhao, B. Lyu, and Z. Zhou, “Ultra-precision grinding of 4H-SiC wafer by PAV/PF composite sol-gel diamond wheel,” Adv. Mech. Eng., Vol.13, No.9, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1177/16878140211044929
-  Z. Chen, S. Zhan, and Y. Zhao, “Electrochemical jet-assisted precision grinding of single-cryral SiC using soft abrasive wheel,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol.195, 106239, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2020.106239
-  D. Wang, Q. Liang, and D. Xu, “Research on damage characteristics of ultrasonic vibration-assisted grinding of a C/SiC composite material,” Sensors, Vol.23, No.1, 224, 2023. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010224
-  M. Vahdati and S. A. Rasouli, “Evaluation of parameters affecting magnetic abrasive finishing on concave freeform surface of Al alloy via RSM method,” Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol.2016, 5256347, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5256347
-  C. W. Kum, T. Sato, J. Guo, K. Liu, and D. Butler, “A novel media properties-based material removal rate model for magnetic field-assisted finishing,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol.141, pp. 189-197, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2018.04.006
-  M. Chen, H. Liu, J. Cheng, B. Yu, and Z. Fang, “Model of the material removal function and an experimental study on a magnetorheological finishing process using a small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head,” Appl. Opt., Vol.56, No.19, pp. 5573-5582, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.56.005573
-  T. Permpatdechakul, P. Khajornrungruang, K. Suzuki, and S. Kutomi, “Proposal of a novel peeling of nano-particle (PNP) process for localized material removal on a hard material surface by controllable magnetic fields,” Proc. of the 22nd Int. Conf. & Exhibition of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (euspen 2022), pp. 279-280, 2022.
-  Y. Idei, K. Kimura, and P. Khajornrungruang, “Observation of particle behavior in slurry in CMP process using evanescent field,” Proc. JSPE Kyushu Branch Meeting in Saga 2009, pp. 106-107, 2009 (in Japanese).
-  K. Kimura, K. Suzuki, and P. Khajornrungruang, “Study on fine particle behavior in slurry flow between wafer and polishing pad as a material removal process in CMP,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planarization/CMP Technology 2012 (ICPT 2012), pp. 1-6, 2012.
-  P. Khajornrungruang, S. Babu, K. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Study on on-machine visualization of surface processing phenomena in nanoscale: The apparatus development,” Proc. of JSPE Semestrial Meeting, 2015 JSPE Autumn Conf., pp. 85-86, 2015 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.11522/pscjspe.2015A.0_85
-  T. Permpatdechakul, P. Khajornrungruang, K. Suzuki, and Y. Terayama, “Development of in-situ observation apparatus for investigating the nanoparticles phenomenon on surface in CMP using evanescent field,” Proc. JSPE Kyushu Branch Meeting 2018, pp. 32-34, 2018.
-  T. Permpatdechakul, P. Khajornrungruang, K. Suzuki, and A. Blattler, “Observatory of nano-scale polishing phenomena during SiO2-CMP process by compact apparatus applying optical evanescent field,” Proc. of the 18th Int. Conf. on Precision Engineering (ICPE2020), D-1-17, 2020.
-  P. A. Valberg and J. P. Butler, “Magnetic particle motions within living cells. Physical theory and techniques,” Biophys. J., Vol.52, No.4, pp. 537-550, 1987. https://doi.org/10.1016%2FS0006-3495(87)83243-5
-  E. J. Ambrose, “A surface contact microscope for the study of cell movement,” Nature, Vol.178, No.4543, p. 1194, 1956. https://doi.org/10.1038/1781194a0
-  D. C. Prieve, F. Luo, and F. Lanni, “Brownian motion of a hydrosol particle in a colloidal force field,” Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc., Vol.83, pp. 297-307, 1987.
-  P. A. Temple, “Total internal reflection microscopy: A surface inspection technique,” Appl. Opt., Vol.20, No.15, pp. 2656-2664, 1981. https://doi.org/10.1039/DC9878300297
-  D. C. Prieve and J. Y. Walz, “Scattering of an evanescent surface wave by a microscopic dielectric sphere,” Appl. Opt., Vol.32, No.9, pp. 1629-1641, 1993. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.32.001629
-  J. Y. Walz, “Measuring particle interactions with total internal reflection microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci., Vol.2, No.6, pp. 600-606, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-0294(97)80052-0
-  S. Takahashi, R. Nakajima, T. Miyoshi, Y. Takaya, and K. Takamasu, “Development of an evanescent light measurement system for Si wafer microdefect detection,” Key Eng. Mater., Vols.295-296, pp. 15-20, 2005. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.295-296.15
-  C. Zettner and M. Yoda, “Particle velocity field measurements in a near-wall flow using evanescent wave illumination,” Exp. Fluids, Vol.34, No.1, pp. 115-121, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-002-0541-5
-  A. Blattler, P. Khajornrungruang, K. Suzuki, and T. Permpatdechakul, “High-speed three-dimensional tracking of an individual 100 nm polystyrene standard particles in multi-wavelength evanescent fields,” Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol.31. No.9, 094012, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/ab87ec
-  P. Khajornrungruang, K. Suzuki, and T. Inoue, “Study on non-contact micro tool tip nano-position detect by means of evanescent field penetration depth,” Proc. of the 18th Int. Conf. & Exhibition of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (euspen 2018), pp. 139-140, 2018.
-  Q. Ramadan, V. D. Samper, D. P. Puiu, and C. Yu, “Fabrication of three-dimensional magnetic microdevices with embedded microcoils for magnetic potential,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., Vol.15, No.3, pp. 624-638, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2006.876788
-  P. Oxley, J. Goodell, and B. Molt, “Magnetic properties of stainless steels at room and cryogenic temperatures,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., Vol.321, No.14, pp. 2107-2114, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2009.01.002
-  H. Çiftçi, B. Ersoy, and A. Evcin, “Synthesis, characterization and Cr(VI) adsorption properties of modified magnetite nanoparticles,” Acta Phys. Pol. A, Vol.132, No.3, pp. 564-569, 2017. https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.132.564
-  I. Florea, M. Houllé, O. Ersen, L. Roiban, A. Deneuve, I. Janowska, P. Nguyen, C. Pham, and C. Pham-Huu, “Selective deposition of palladium nanoparticles inside the bimodal porosity of β-SiC investigated by electron tomography,” J. Phys. Chem. C., Vol.113, No.41, pp. 17711-17719, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp905968n
-  S. Ota and Y. Takemura, “Characterization of Néel and Brownian relaxations isolated from complex dynamics influenced by dipole interactions in magnetic nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C, Vol.123, No.47, pp. 28859-28866, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b06790
-  H. Ohshima, T. W. Healy, and L. R. White, “Improvement on the Hogg–Healy–Fuerstenau formulas for the interaction of dissimilar double layers: I. Second and third approximations for moderate potentials,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., Vol.89, No.2, pp. 484-493, 1982. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(82)90199-0
-  H. C. Hamaker, “The London–van der Waals attraction between spherical particles,” Physica, Vol.4, No.10, pp. 1058-1072, 1937. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-8914(37)80203-7
-  S. Saenna, P. Khajornrungruang, A. Blattler, T. Permpatdechakul, K. Suzuki, and M. A. Bakier, “Brownian motion simulation of SiO2 abrasive nanoparticle on SiC substrate surface,” Proc. of 10th Int. Conf. on Leading Edge Manufacturing in 21st century (LEM21), pp. 353-357, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1299/jsmelem.2021.10.178-171
-  A. Blatter, P. Khajornrungruang, K. Suzuki, and T. Permpatdechakul, “Three-dimensional tracking and height verification of polystyrene particles with piezo actuator positioning by means of multi-wavelength evanescent field,” Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (euspen 2020), pp. 53-56, 2020.
-  A. Blattler, P. Khajornrungruang, K. Suzuki, and S. Saenna, “A novel method for 3D nanoscale tracking of 100 nm polystyrene particles in multi-wavelength evanescent field microscopy – Absolute difference height verification – ,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.15, No.6, pp. 831-841, 2021. https://doi.org/10.20965/ijat.2021.p0831
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.