Design of Lightweight Cutting Tools
Andreas Häusler, Kim Torben Werkle, Walther Maier, and Hans-Christian Möhring
Institute for Machine Tools, University of Stuttgart
17 Holzgartenstrasse, Stuttgart 70174, Germany
Taking into account the growing demand for sophisticated cutting tools in terms of their performance, new approaches, besides the development of the tool’s cutting edge, have to be investigated and validated by physical tests. In this study, methods of topology optimization and hybrid design are adopted for cutting tools. After a quick overview of its motivations, reduction of mass, the design of load paths, and beneficial functions within tool bodies, a structured method and its application on a long shell end mill for metal cutting is described as part of a holistic approach at the system and component levels. The manufacturing of the resulting geometry is examined for additive manufacturing. The optimized structures reduce the spindle power required, especially for acceleration to the desired speed; this, in turn, decreases the energy consumption of the process. Besides bearing static and dynamic loads, composites provide the adjustable option in process-stabilizing damping. In the field of wood cutting, the cutting forces are lower than those in the machining of metals. Here, we describe a planing tool with a large overhang and the first step in its development. The finite element analysis within the software Ansys Workbench and CompositePrep/Post (ACP), the special tool for modeling reinforced structures, are utilized for preparing the layout of the tool. To ensure the structural integrity of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP), the failure criteria proposed by Puck are applied. The overhanging planing tool is clamped on one side. It shows the principles for the development of a prototype and forms the basis for tools with even larger diameters and benefits. The underlying concept of the planing tool prototype is an innovative sandwich concept, wherein sleeves are used to join metal with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) in a micro-forming process. Besides the abovementioned advantages, the reduction of acoustic emissions in the very noisy field of wood machining is a promising application.
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