Precision Machining of Sintered Zirconia Ceramics by High-Speed Milling
Yusuke Ito†, Naohiko Sugita, Tatsuya Fujii, Toru Kizaki, and Mamoru Mitsuishi
School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Precision machining of sintered zirconia ceramics is expected for various applications such as dental prostheses or artificial femoral heads. However, machining of zirconia is a major challenge because of its high hardness. We have found that the bending strength and fracture toughness of this material decrease with an increase in temperature. To use this characteristic, we propose a high-speed milling process with a cutting speed of more than 500 m/min because high-cutting speed can generate a large amount of heat during cutting. According to the results of trials, precision machining of the surface was possible with a cutting speed of 670 m/min. Moreover, the amount of flank wear was decreased by the high-speed milling. These results confirmed the possibility of precision cutting of sintered zirconia ceramics.
-  http://www.nittan.co.jp/products/ceramicsmaterial_002_004.html [accessed Jan. 9, 2017]
-  R. C. Garvie, C. Urbani, D. R. Kennedy, and J. C. McNeuer, “Biocompatibility of magnesia-partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ) ceramics,” J. of Materials Science, Vol.19, No.10, pp. 2334-3228, 1984.
-  Y. Ichikawa, Y. Akagawa, H, Nikai, and H. Tsuru, “Tissue compatibility and stability of a new zirconia ceramic in vivo,” The J. of Prosthetic Dentistry, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 322-326, 1992.
-  C. Piconi and G. Maccauro, “Zirconia as a ceramic biomaterial,” Biomaterials, Vol.20, No.1, pp. 1-25, 1999.
-  E. Medvedovski, “Wear-resistant engineering ceramics,” Wear, Vol.249, No.9, pp. 821-828, 2001.
-  P. F. Manicone, P. R. Iommetti, and L. Raffaelli, “An overview of zirconia ceramics: Basic properties and clinical applications,” J. of Dentistry, Vol.35, No.11, pp. 819-826, 2007.
-  I. Denry and J. R. Kelly, “State of the art of zirconia for dental applications,” Dental Materials, Vol.24, No.3, pp. 299-307, 2008.
-  F. Filser, P. Kocher, F. Weibel, H. Luthy, P. Scharer, and L. J. Gauckler, “Reliability and strength of all-ceramic dental restorations fabricated by direct ceramic machining (DCM),” Int. J. of Computerized Dentistry, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 89-106, 2001.
-  V. Good, M. Ries, R. L. Barrack, K. Widding, G. Hunter, and D. Heuer, “Reduced wear with oxidized zirconium femoral heads,” The J. of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol.85, No.4, pp. 105-110, 2003.
-  H. G. Scott, “Phase Relationships in the Zirconia–Yttria System,” J. of Materials Science, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 1527-1535, 1975.
-  D. W. Kang and C. M. Lee, “A study on the development of the laser-assisted milling process and a related constitutive equation for silicon nitride,” CIRP Annals, Vol.63, No.1, pp. 109-112, 2014.
-  A. N. Samant and N. B. Dahotre, “Laser machining of structural ceramics – A review,” J. of the European Ceramic Society, Vol.29, No.6, pp. 969-993, 2009.
-  F. E. Pfefferkorn, Y. C. Shin, Y. Tian, and F. P. Incropera, “Laser-assisted machining of magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia,” J. Manufact. Sci. Eng., Trans. ASME, Vol.126, No.1, pp. 42-51, 2004.
-  D. T. Pham, S. S. Dimov, and P. V. Petkov, “Laser milling of ceramic components,” Int. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.47, No.3-4, pp. 618-626, 2007.
-  T. Kizaki, K. Harada, and M. Mitsuishi, “Efficient and precise cutting of zirconia ceramics using heated cutting tool,” CIRP Annals, Vol.63, No.1, pp. 105-108, 2014.
-  Y. Ito, T. Kizaki, R. Shinomoto, M. Ueki, N. Sugita, and M. Mitsuishi, “High-efficiency and precision cutting of glass by selective laser-assisted milling,” Precision Engineering, Vol.47, pp. 498-507, 2017.
-  E. Kacar, M. Mutlu, E. Akman, A. Demir, L. Candan, T. Canel, V. Gunay, and T. Sınmazcelik, “Characterization of the drilling alumina ceramic using Nd:YAG pulsed laser,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.209, No.4, pp. 2008-2014, 2009.
-  R. Shinomoto, Y. Ito, T. Kizaki, K. Tatsukoshi, Y. Fukasawa, K. Nagato, N. Sugita, and M. Mitsuishi, “Experimental analysis of glass drilling with ultrashort pulse lasers,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 863-873, 2016.
-  J. C. Rozzi, F. E. Pfefferkorn, Y. C. Shin, and F. P. Incropera, “Experimental evaluation of the laser assisted machining of silicon nitride ceramics,” J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol.122, No.4, pp. 666-670, 2000.
-  T. Kizaki, T. Ogasahara, N. Sugita, and M. Mitsuishi, “Ultraviolet-laser-assisted precision cutting of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal,” J. of Materials Proc. Technology, Vol.214, pp. 267-275, 2014.
-  H. S. Carshaw and J. C. Jeager, “Conduction of Heat in Solids,” Oxford University Press, 1959.
-  D. Rosenthal, “The theory of moving sources of heat and its application to metal treatments,” Trans. ASME, Vol.68, No.11, pp. 849, 1946.
-  T. Childs, K. Maekawa, T. Obikawa, and Y. Yamane, “Metal machining-theory and applications,” John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 2000.
-  G. Morscher, P. Pirouz, and A. Heuer, “Temperature dependence of hardness in yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystals,” J. of the Americal Ceramic Society, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 491-500, 1991.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.