Posture Control Considering Joint Stiffness of a Robotic Arm Driven by Rubberless Artificial Muscle
Naoki Saito† and Toshiyuki Satoh
Akita Prefectural University
84-4 Ebinokuchi, Tsuchiya, Yurihonjo Akita, Japan
This paper describes a joint angle control considering the passive joint stiffness of robotic arms driven by rubberless artificial muscle (RLAM), which is a pneumatic actuator. The contraction mechanism of RLAM is the same as that of the McKibben artificial muscle. Unlike the McKibben artificial muscle, RLAM is constructed using an airbag made of a nonelastic material instead of a rubber tube.
The objective of this study is to realize a soft contact movement of robotic arms by applying the passive compliance characteristics of RLAMs. In this study, we derive a mathematical expression for the relationship between the output of an RLAM and the joint stiffness of a robotic arm. In addition, we suggest a control scheme for each RLAM. We confirm the validity of these suggestions experimentally. From the result, we observe a good control performance of the joint angle. A robotic arm moves smoothly according to the force added from outside by setting the passive stiffness of the arm.
-  C. Fitzgerald, “Developing baxter,” 2013 IEEE Int. Conf. Tech. for Prac. Robot Applications (TePRA), pp. 1-6, 2013.
-  T. Noritsugu, F. Ando, S. Dohta, and T. Yamanaka, “Hybrid-type position and force control of robot manipulator using artificial rubber muscle,” J. of Rob. and Mech., Vol.7, No.6, pp. 436-442, 1995.
-  D. Kulic and E. Croft, “Pre-collision safety strategies for human-robot interaction,” Auton. Rob., Vol.22, Issue2, pp. 149-164, 2006.
-  B. Tondu, S. Ippolito, and J. Guiochet, “A seven-degrees-of-freedom robot-arm driven by pneumatic artificial muscles for humanoid robots,” The Int. J. of Rob. Res., Vol.24, No.4, pp. 257-274, 2005.
-  M. Hamerlain, “An anthropomorphic robot arm driven by artificial muscles using a variable structure control,” Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intel. Rob. Sys. (IROS 1995), pp. 550-555, 1995.
-  D. Kamo, M. Maehara, D. Tanaka, and T. Nakamura, “Development of a manipulator with straight-fiber- type artificial muscle and differential gear mechanism,” Proc. 37th Ann. Conf. IEEE Ind. Elec. Soc. (IECON2011), pp. 57-62, 2011.
-  H. Kobayashi, T. Shiiba, and Y. Ishida, “Realization of All 7 Motions for the Upper Limb by a Muscle Suit,” J. Rob. Mech. Vol.16, No.5, pp. 504-512, 2004.
-  T. Noritsugu, M. Takaiwa, and D. Sasaki, “Development of powe assist wear using pneumatic rubber artificial muscles,” J. Rob. Mech., Vol.21, No.5, pp. 605-612, 2009.
-  K. Tadano, M. Akai, K. Kadota, and K. Kawashima, “Development of grip amplified glove using bi-articular mechanism with pneumatic artificial rubber muscle,” Proc. 2010 IEEE Int. Conf. Rob. Auto. (ICRA2010), pp. 2363-2368, 2010.
-  K. Kawashima, T. Sasaki, T. Miyata, N. Nakamura, M. Sekiguchi, and T. Kagawa, “Development of robot using pneumatic artificial rubber muscles to operate construction machinery,” J. Rob. Mech., Vol.16, No.1, pp. 8-16, 2004.
-  H. Jahanabadi, M. Mailah, M. Z. Md Zain, and M. H. Hooi, “Active Force with Fuzzy Logic Control of a Two-Link Arm Driven by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles,” J. Bion. Eng. Vol.8, No.4, pp. 474-484, 2011.
-  N. Hogan, “Adaptive control of mechanical impedance by coactivation of antagonist muscles,” IEEE Trans. Auto. Cont. Vol.29, No.8, pp. 681-690, 1984.
-  K. Ito and T. Tsuji, “Control Properties of Human-Prosthesis System with Bilinear Variable Structure,” Proc. 2nd IFAC Conf. Man-Mach. Sys. pp. 353-358, 1985.
-  K. Ito, M. Pecson, Z.W. Luo, M. Yamakita, A. Kato, T. Aoya, and M. Ito, “Compliance control of an EMG-controlled prosthetic forearm using ultrasonic motors,” Proc. IEEE/RSJ/GI Int. Conf. Intel. Rob. Sys. pp. 1816-1823, 1994.
-  T. Noritsugu and T. Tanaka, “Application of rubber artificial muscle manipulator as a rehabilitation robot,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mech., Vol.2, No.4, pp. 259-267, 1997.
-  T. Nakamura, D. Tanaka, and H. Maeda, “Joint stiffness and position control of an artificial muscle manipulator for instantaneous loads using a mechanical equilibrium model,” Adv. Rob., Vol.25, pp. 387-406, 2011.
-  T. Yamashita, K. Takeuchi, Y. Okuno, and S. Sagara, “Control of stiffness and torque by antagonistically driven joint: Experimental study using air actuated mechanism,” J. of Robotics Society Japan, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 666-673, 1995 (in Japanese).
-  N. Saito, T. Sato, T. Ogasawara, R. Takahashi, and T. Satoh, “Mechanical equilibrium model of rubberless artificial muscle and application to position control of antagonistic drive system,” Ind. Rob.: An Int. j., Vol.40, No.4, pp. 347-354, 2013.
-  T. Sato, N. Saito, and T. Satoh, “Joint angle control of a manipulator driven by rubberless artificial muscle using a static mechanical equilibrium model,” Procedia Eng. Vol.41, pp. 671-677, 2012.
-  C. Chou and B. Hannaford, “Measurement and modeling of McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom., Vol.12, No.1, pp. 90-102, 1996.