Cutting Characteristics of Binderless Diamond Tools in High-Speed Turning of Ti-6Al-4V – Availability of Single-Crystal and Nano-Polycrystalline Diamond –
Abang Mohammad Nizam Abang Kamaruddin*1,*2,†, Akira Hosokawa*3, Takashi Ueda*4, and Tatsuaki Furumoto*3
*1Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia
*2Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University
Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
†Corresponding author, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
*3Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
*4Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
In this study, the tool performance of two types of binderless diamond tools – single-crystal diamond (SCD) and nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) – is investigated in the high-speed cutting of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) with a water-soluble coolant. The NPD tool allows for a larger cutting force than the SCD tool by dulling of the cutting edge, despite NPD being harder than SCD. This large cutting force and the very low thermal conductivity of NPD yield a high cutting temperature above 500°C, which promotes the adhesion of the workpiece to the tool face, thereby increasing tool wear. Based on the morphology of the tool edge without scratch marks and the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) of both the flank face and the cutting chips, diffusion-dissolution wear is determined to be the dominant mechanism in the diamond tool. A thin TiC layer seems to be formed in the boundary between the diamond tool and the titanium alloy at high temperatures; this is removed by the cutting chips.
-  E. O. Ezugwu, and Z. M. Wang, “Titanium alloys and their machinability – a review,” J. Material Processing Technology, Vol.68, pp. 262-274, 1997.
-  Z. A. Zoya, and R. Krishnamurthy, “The performance of CBN tools in the machining of titanium alloys,” J. Materials Processing Technology, Vol.100, pp. 80-86, 2000.
-  N. Narutaki, and A. Murakoshi, “Study on machining of titanium alloys,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol.32, Issue 1, pp. 65-69, 1983.
-  C. J. Pretorius, S. L. Soo, D. K. Aspinwall, P. M. Harden, R. M'Saoubi, and A. L. Mantle, “Tool wear behaviour and workpiece surface integrity when turning Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo with polycrystalline diamond tooling,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol.64, Issue 1, pp. 109-112, 2015.
-  R. B. da Silva, A. R. Machado, E. O. Ezugwu, J. Bonny, and W. F. Sales, “Tool life and wear mechanisms in high speed machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with PCD tools under various coolant pressures,” J. Materials Processing Technology, Vol.213, pp. 1459-1464, 2013.
-  M. Rahman, Z.-G. Eang, and Y.-S. Wong, “A review on high-speed machining of titanium alloys,” JSME Int. J. (C), Vol.49, No.1, pp. 11-20, 2006.
-  A. Jawaid, C. H. Che-Haron, and A. Abdullah, “Tool wear characteristic in turning of titanium alloy Ti-6246,” J. Material Processing Technology, Vol.92-93, pp. 329-334, 1999.
-  S. Zhang, J. F. Li, J. X. Deng, and Y. S. Li, “Investigation on diffusion wear during high speed machining Ti-6Al-4V alloy with straight tungsten carbide tools,” Int. J. Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.44, pp. 17-25, 2009.
-  P. D. Hurtung, and B. M. Kramer, “Tool wear in titanium machining,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol.31, Issue 1, pp. 75-80, 1982.
-  E. O. Ezugwu, R. B. Da Silva, J. Bonney, and A. R. Machado, “Evaluation of the performance of CBN tools when turning Ti-6Al-4V alloy with high pressure coolant supplies,” Int. J. Machine Tool & Manufacture, Vol.45, pp. 1009-1014, 2005.
-  F. Nabhani, “Wear mechanism of ultra-hard cutting tool materials,” J. Material Processing Technology, Vol.115, pp. 402-412, 2001.
-  W. Konig, and A. Neises, “Turning TiAL6V4 with PCD,” Industrial Diamond Review, Vol.2, No.93, pp. 85-88, 1993.
-  K. Hirosaki, K. Shintani, H. Kato, F. Asakura, and K. Matsuo, “High speed machining of bio-titanium alloy with a binder-less PcBN tool,” JSME Int. J. (C), Vol.47, No.1, pp. 14-20, 2004.
-  Z. G. Wang, Y. S. Wong, and M. Rahman, “High-speed milling of titanium alloys using binderless CBN tools,” Int. J. Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol.45, pp. 105-114, 2005.
-  F. Klocke, W. Konig, and K. Gerschwiller, “AMST'96 CISM Courses and Lectures 372,” E. Kuljanic (Ed.), Springer Vertag, Wein, pp. 7-21, 1996.
-  H. Nishimoto, R. Tanaka, A. Hosokawa, T. Ueda, and T. Furumoto, “Development of tool edge temperature measurement method in wet cutting,” J. Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 916-922, 2012.
-  M. Okada, A. Hosokawa, R. Tanaka, and T. Ueda, “Cutting performance of PVD-coated carbide and CBN tools in hardmilling,” Int. J. Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol.51, No.2, pp. 127-132, 2011.
-  M. Okada, N. Asakawa, E. Sentoku, R. M'Saoubi, and T. Ueda, “Cutting performance of an indexable insert drill for difficult-to-cut materials under supplied oil mist,” Int. J. Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.72, No.1-4, pp. 475-485, 2014.
-  M. Okada, A. Hosokawa, N. Asakawa, and T. Ueda, “End milling of stainless steel and titanium alloy in an oil mist environment,” Int. J. Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.74, No.9-12, pp. 1255-1266, 2014.
-  R. Tanaka, A. Hosokawa, T. Furumoto, and T. Ueda, “Effects of Tool Edge Geometry on Cutting Temperature in Continuous Cutting of Case Hardened Steel,” Int. J. Automation Technology, Vol.7, No.3, pp. 313-320, 2013.
-  E. Kuljanic, M. Fioretti, L. Beltrame, and F. Miani, “Milling titanium compressor blades with PCD cutter,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol.47, Issue 1, pp. 61-64, 1998.
-  D. G. Pettifor, “Bonding and Structure of Molecules and Solids,” Oxford University Press, pp. 12-13, 1995.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.