IJAT Vol.10 No.3 pp. 364-371
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2016.p0364


Two-Layer Tool with Hardness Distribution Around Tool Edge for Reducing Cutting Forces in CFRP Machining

Satoru Maegawa, Shinya Hayakawa, Fumihiro Itoigawa, and Takashi Nakamura

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology
Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555, Japan

Corresponding author, E-mail:

October 1, 2015
January 4, 2016
May 2, 2016
carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics, cutting, tool life, abrasive wear, cutting force

This study presents a method for extending the life of tools in cutting of Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). In the previous study, our research group found that the use of two layer tool, which has a wear resistance distribution due to the use of a combination of two different materials with different hardnesses, is effective for decreasing cutting force during machining of CFRP composites. In the two layer tool, a narrow region of the flank face close to the tool edge and the whole of the rake face were made of a material with a relatively high wear resistance, e.g., diamond or polycrystalline diamond (PCD). In contrast, the other region of the flank face was made of a material with a relatively low wear resistance, e.g., tungsten carbide (WC-Co). In this study, based on some experiments, the effect of the thickness of high wear resistance region on the reduction effects of cutting forces was investigated.

Cite this article as:
S. Maegawa, S. Hayakawa, F. Itoigawa, and T. Nakamura, “Two-Layer Tool with Hardness Distribution Around Tool Edge for Reducing Cutting Forces in CFRP Machining,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.10, No.3, pp. 364-371, 2016.
Data files:
  1. [1] J. Y. Sheikh-Ahmad, “Machining of Polymer Composites,” Springer, New York, 2009.
  2. [2] H. Hocheng, H. Y. Puw, and Y. Huang, “Preliminary study on milling of unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced plastics,” Compos. Manuf., Vol.4, pp. 103-108, 1993.
  3. [3] C. R. Dandekar and Y. C. Shin, “Modeling of machining of composite materials: a review,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manu., Vol.57,pp. 102-121, 2012.
  4. [4] D. Che, I. Saxena, P. Han, P. Guo, and K. F. Ehmann, “Machining of carbon fiber reinforced plastics/polymers: a literature review,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., Vol.136,No.034001, 2014.
  5. [5] K. Sakuma and M. Seto, “Tool wear in cutting glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (the relation between fiber orientation and tool wear),” B. JSME, Vol.26, pp. 1420-1427, 1983.
  6. [6] T. Kaneeda, “CFRP cutting mechanism,” Trans. North Am. Manuf. Res. Inst. SME, Vol.19, pp. 216-221, 1991.
  7. [7] D. H. Wang, M. Ramulu and D. Arola, “Orthogonal cutting mechanisms of graphite/epoxy composite. Part I: unidirectional laminate,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manu., Vol.35, pp. 1623-1638, 1995.
  8. [8] P. S. Sreejith, R. Krishnamurthy, S. K. Malhotra, and K. Narayanasamy, “Evaluation of PCD tool performance during machining of carbon/phenolic ablative composites,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., Vol.104, pp. 53-58, 2000.
  9. [9] A. Koplev, A. Lystrup, and T. Vorm, “The cutting process, chips, and cutting forces in machining CFRP,” Composites, Vol.14, pp. 371-376, 1983.
  10. [10] B. Denkena, D. Boehnke, and J. H. Dege, “Helical milling of CFRP-titanium layer compounds,” CIRP J. Manuf. Sci. Technol., Vol.1,pp. 64-69, 2008.
  11. [11] K. Sakuma, M. Seto, M. Taniguchi, and Y. Yokoo, “Tool wear in cutting carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics: the effect of physical properties of tool materials,” B. JSME, Vol.28, pp. 2781-2788, 1985.
  12. [12] J. R. Ferreira, N. L. Coppini, and G. W. A. Miranda, “Machining optimisation in carbon fibre reinforced composite materials,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., Vol.92-93, pp. 135-140, 1999.
  13. [13] J. R. Ferreira, N. L. Coppini, and F. Levy Neto, “Characteristics of carbon-carbon composites turning,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., Vol.109, pp. 65-71, 2001.
  14. [14] J. Lantrip, “New tools needed,” Cutting Tool Eng., Vol.60, pp. 72-84, 2008.
  15. [15] J. F. Chatelain and I. Zaghbani, “A comparison of special helical cutter geometries based on cutting forces for the trimming of CFRP laminates,” Int. J. Mech., Vol.6, pp. 52-59, 2012.
  16. [16] S. Maegawa, Y. Morikawa, S. Hayakawa, F. Itoigawa, and T. Nakamura, “A novel cutting concept of CFRP composites for extending the life of tool,” Key Eng. Mat., Vol.656-657, pp. 198-203, 2015.
  17. [17] S. Maegawa, Y. Morikawa, S. Hayakawa, F. Itoigawa, and T. Nakamura, “Mechanism for changes in cutting forces for down-milling of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates: modeling and experimentation,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manu., Vol.100, pp. 7-13, 2016.
  18. [18] S. Maegawa, S. Hayakawa, F. Itoigawa, and T. Nakamura, “Development of novel tool for cutting of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics – positive use of abrasive wear at tool edge for reduction in cutting force,” Mech. Eng. J. (in press).
  19. [19] Y. Mabuchi, F. Itoigawa, T. Nakamura, K. Kawata, and T. Suganuma, “High precision turning of hardened steel by use of PcBN insert sharpened with short pulse laser,” Key. Eng. Mat., Vol.656-657, pp. 277-282, 2015.
  20. [20] M. C. Shaw, “Metal Cutting Principles,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1984.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Aug. 21, 2019