High-Speed Measurement of Complex Shaped Parts at Elevated Temperature by Laser Triangulation
Alexander Schöch*1,*2, Alessandro Salvadori*1, Ivo Germann*3, Silvano Balemi*3, Carlo Bach*2, Andrea Ghiotti*1, Simone Carmignato*4, Andrea Lelio Maurizio*5, and Enrico Savio*1
*1Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua
Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova, Italy
*2Institute for Production Metrology, Materials and Optics, NTB Interstate University of Applied Sciences of Technology Buchs
Werdenbergstr 4, 9471 Buchs, Switzerland
*3Zumbach Electronic AG
2552 Orpund, Switzerland
*4Department of Engineering and Management, University of Padua
Stradella S. Nicola, 3, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
*5Pietro Rosa TBM Srl
Via Petrarca 7, 33085 Maniago (PN), Italy
The increasing quality expectations and the global competition push manufacturing industry to adopt strategies of lean manufacturing and precision engineering. In order to reach these aims it is necessary that the measuring process is integrated in the production chain to provide timely feedback for process control. Nowadays, however, forged products are typically measured after the cool-down process, which can take several hours. The advantages obtainable if forgings would be measured online are clear: deviations in the production process would be recognized earlier and the production process could be promptly adjusted. On-line measurement capabilities have the potential to reduce overall production costs and consequently are of interest to many forging industries, including those producing complex products such as turbine blades. Under these circumstances, the HOTGAUGE project was initiated: an international EUROSTARS project with the goal to develop a measuring system, capable of measuring freeform shaped parts at elevated temperature (approx. 800°C) directly after the forging step. The output of the measuring system is a 3D model of the hot part including temperature information. The 3D coordinate measuring system is composed by two main subsystems: a 2D laser-triangulation system capable to scan a complete section of the part, and a moving platform, which moves the part through the measuring plane. The architecture and the components of the measurement system as well as measurement results are presented in this paper.
-  H. Ou, P. Wang, B. Lu, and H. Long, “Finite element modelling and optimisation of net-shape metal forming processes with uncertainties,” Comput. Struct., Vol.90, pp. 13-27, 2012.
-  F. Klocke, S. Kratz, T. Auerbach, S. Gierlings, G. Wirtz, and D. Veselovac, “Process monitoring and control of machining operations,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.5, pp. 403-411, 2011.
-  S. Bruschi and A. Ghiotti, “Distortions induced in turbine blades by hot forging and cooling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol.48, pp. 761-767, 2008.
-  X. Fu, B. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “An optical non-contact measurement method for hot-state size of cylindrical shell forging,” Vol.45, pp. 1343-1349, 2012.
-  Y. Bokhabrine, R. Seulin, L. F. C. Lew Yan Voon, P. Gorria, G. Girardin, M. Gomez, and D. Jobard, “3D characterization of hot metallic shells during industrial forging,” Vol.23, pp. 417-425, 2012.
-  J. He, F. Gao, S. Wu, R. Liu, and X. Zhao, “Measure dimension of rotating large hot steel shell using pulse laser on PRRR robot,” Vol.45, pp. 1814-1823, 2012.
-  Y. Du, Z. Du, P. H. Lehmann, W. Osten, and K. Gastinger, “Measurement system for hot heavy forgings and its calibration,” Optical Measurement Systems for Industrial Inspection VII, pp. 80822Y-80822Y-11, 2011.
-  Z. Tian, F. Gao, Z. Jin, and X. Zhao, “Dimension measurement of hot large forgings with a novel time-of-flight system,” Vol.44, pp. 125-132, 2009.
-  K. Määtta, J. Kostamovaara, and R. Myllyl”a, “Profiling of hot surfaces by pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder techniques,” Appl. Opt., Vol.32, pp. 5334-5347, 1993.
-  Minteq Int. Inc, http://www.mineralstech.com [Accessed February 2015]
-  MERMEC S.p.A., http://www.mermec.it [Accessed February 2015]
-  Y. Zhang, J. Han, X. Fu, and F. Zhang, “Measurement and control technology of the size for large hot forgings,” Vol.49, pp. 52-59, 2014.
-  W. Liu, X. Jia, Z. Jia, S. Liu, B. Wang, and J. Du, “Fast dimensional measurement method and experiment of the forgings under high temperature,” Vol.211, pp. 237-244, 2011.
-  D. Stöobener, M. Dijkman, D. Kruse, H. Surm, O. Kessler, P. Mayr, and G. Goch, “Distance measurements with laser triangulation in hot environments,” Proc. XVII IMEKO World Congress, June 22-27, 2003.
-  LIMAB, http://www.limab.com [Accessed February 2015]
-  Danieli Automation, http://www.dca.it[Accessed February 2015]
-  Zumbach Electronic AG, http://www.zumbach.ch [Accessed February 2015]
-  E. Savio, L. De Chiffre, and R. Schmitt, “Metrology of freeform shaped parts,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., Vol.56, pp. 810-835, 2007.
-  S. Chae and G. Lee, “Vol.triangulation from planar cross sections,” Vol.72, pp. 93-108, 1999.
-  Y. Kimura, A. Matsubara, and Y. Koike, “Analysis of Measurement Errors of a Diffuse-Reflection-Type Laser Displacement Sensor for Profile Measurement,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.6, pp. 724-727, 2012.
-  A. Schöoch, I. Germann, S. Balemi, and C. Bach, “Schnelle Kalibrierung eines Multi-Lichtschnitt-Sensorsystems zur Vermessung schwieriger Profile,” Proc. of 12. Oldenburger 3D Tage, Oldenburg, 2013.
-  Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol.22, pp. 1330-1334, 2000.
-  ISO 10360-2:2009, “Geometrical product specifications (GPS) – Acceptance and reverification tests for coordinate measuring machines (CMM) – Part 2: CMMs used for measuring linear dimensions,” 2009.
-  A. Ghiotti, A. Schöoch, A. Salvadori, S. Carmignato, and E. Savio, “Enhancing the accuracy of high-speed laser triangulation measurement of freeform parts at elevated temperature,” CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology, 2015 (in press).
-  Schott AG, http://www.schott.com [Accessed January 2015]