AHP Analysis of the Preference of Engineers for Suitable CFRP for Automobile Parts
Kenju Akai*, Yuji Kageyama**, Kaoru Sato***, Nariaki Nishino*, and Kazuro Kageyama*
*Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
**Graduate School of Engineering, Study of Manufacturing, Kanazawa Institute of Technology
1-3-4 Atago, Minato, Tokyo 105-0002, Japan
***Roland Berger Strategy Consultants
ARK Mori Building 23
rd Floor, 1-12-32 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-6023, Japan
A questionnaire survey was conducted and analyzed with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate the suitability of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) for use in automobile parts from an engineer’s viewpoint. The results indicated that carbon fiber has a higher potential for use in the framework than as an outer panel or exterior material. In addition, unidirectional and isotropic CFRPs can be used as alternatives to steel for higher-class automobiles. The critical evaluation criteria for carbon fiber are the material cost, safety, stiffness, and corrosion resistance. With the innovative carbon fiber project of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, CFRP has high potential as an alternative material for not only Class S but also Class A automobiles. In a dramatic innovation scenario with regard to the safety, stiffness, and thermal degradation of carbon fiber, CFRP was found to be a potential alternative material for more than half of the parts of Class A automobiles and several parts of Class C automobiles.
-  Y. Kageyama, “Present and Future of CFRP technology in the automotive,” Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Vol.68, No.11, pp. 75-81, 2014.
-  Steel Bridge Technology Research Association, “Chapter 4 Reference: Research on application of other fields,” http://www. kougiken.jp/04_seika/ [accessed April 23, 2015]
-  Y. Kageyama, “Present and Future of CFRP technology for automotive,” Nagoya green mobility, Next-generation vehicles forum Symposium of regional industry, academia and government, http://www.nisri.jp/jisedai/ [accessed April 23, 2015]
-  ESPN website “F1 list of driver fatal accident,” F1 Feature, http://ja. espnf1.com/f1/motorsport/story/10257.html [accessed April 23, 2015] Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Industrial Science and Technology Policy and Environment Bureau Research and Development Division, “Technology development of innovative new structural materials etc.,” explanatory material, June 2014, http://www.meti.go.jp/information _2/publicoffer/review2014/koukai/material6.pdf [accessed April 23, 2015]
-  The Aluminium Automotive Manual, Version 2013, European Aluminium Association, http://www.alueurope.eu/wp-content /mboxuploads/2011/12/1_AAM_Body-structures.pdf [accessed April 23, 2015]
-  F. Dweiri and F. M. Al-Oqla, “Material selection using analytical hierarchy process,” International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, Vol.26, No.4, pp. 182-189, 2006.
-  R. V. Rao and J. P. Davim, “A decision-making framework model for material selection using a combined multiple attribute decision-making method,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.35, Nos.7-8, pp. 751-760, 2008.
-  Z.-C. Lin and C.-B. Yang, “Evaluation of machine selection by the AHP method,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.57, No.3, pp. 253-258, 1996. M. Yurdakul, “AHP as a strategic decision-making tool to justify machine tool selection,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.146, No.3, pp. 365-376, 2004.
-  T. L. Saaty, “The Analytic Hierarchy Process,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.
-  The University of Tokyo, Mitsubishi Rayon, TOYOBO, TAKAGISEIKO, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, “Development of sustainable hyper-composite technology,” 2014, http://www.nedo.go.jp/content/100084438.pdf [accessed April 23, 2015]
-  Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Committee of Development for Efficient Use of Energy, “Basic plan of technological development for the innovative carbon fiber,” February, 2012, http://www.meti.go.jp/information/downloadfiles/c110228a02j.pdf [accessed April 23, 2015]
-  Y. Yang, A. Nakai, and H. Hamada, “Energy Absorption Characteristics of Carbon FiberReinfrced Textile Composite Tubes,” SME/ASME International Conference on Materials and Processing 2005 (The 13th JSME Material and Processing Conference), 2005.
-  G. Ben, Y. Aoki, and N. Sugimoto, “Impact properties of CFRP/AL Hybrid Beam for Absorbing Impact Energy in Side Collison of Automobiles,” 16th International Conference on Composite Materials, July 2007.
-  S.-M. Jang et al., “Comparing Damage in CFRP Laminates due to Soft Body and Hard Body Impacts, Materials Science Research International,” Vol.8, No.3, pp. 151-155, 2002.
-  M. Graf, E. Fries, J. Renkl, F. Henning, R. Chaudhari, and B. Thoma, “High Pressure Resin Transfer Molding – Process Advancements,” 10th ACCE, pp. 15-16, September, 2010, Troy (MI), http://www.3dnanocomposites.com/uploads/Dieffenbacher-ET5-2010.pdf [accessed April 23, 2015] Hennecke Home Page, HP-RTM, 2013, http://ct.vdma.org/ [accessed April 23, 2015]
-  M. Hagino and T. Inoue, “Effect of Carbon Fiber Orientation and Helix Angle on CFRP Cutting Characteristics by End-Milling,” International Journal of Automation Technology, Vol.7, No.3, pp. 292-299, 2013.
-  T. Inoue and M. Hagino, “Cutting Characteristics of CFRP Materials with Carbon Fiber Distribution,” International Journal of Automation Technology, Vol.7, No.3, pp. 285-291, 2013.
-  M. Matsumoto, S. Kondoh, J. Fujimoto, Y. Umeda, H Tsuchiya, K. Masui, and H. Lee, “A diffusion model for clean energy vehicles,” Journal of Japan Society of Energy and Resources, Vol.29, No.3, pp. 49-55, 2008.
-  Y. Yamaguchi, K. Akai, J. Shen, N. Fujimura, Y. Shimoda, and T. Saijo, “Prediction of photovoltaic and solar water heater diffusion and evaluation of promotion policies on the basis of consumers’ choices,” Applied Energy, Vol.102, pp. 1148-1159, 2013.