A Method for Using a Virtual Machining Simulation to Consider Both Equivalent CO2 Emissions and Machining Costs in Determining Cutting Conditions
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University
1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502, Japan
An evaluation system for calculating equivalent CO2 emissions and machining costs is developed using an activity-based model. The system can evaluate a machining process from an NC program, workpiece information, and cutting tool information, and it can then calculate accurate equivalent CO2 emissions and the machining cost. The cutting speed of an end mill operation is evaluated in terms of the equivalent CO2 emission and the machining cost. Based on the results, optimal cutting conditions are determined to minimize the equivalent CO2 emissions and the machining cost to the extent possible.
-  S. Touma, S. Ohmori, K. Kokubo, and M. Tateno, “Evaluation of Environmental Burden in Eco-friendly Machining Method using Life Cycle Assessment Method – Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emission in Eco-friendly Turing Method –,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.69, No.6, pp. 825-830, 2003. (in Japanese)
-  P. Sheng, D. Bennet, S. Thurwachter, and B.F. von Turkovich, “Environmental-Based Systems Planning for Machining,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol.47, No.1, pp. 409-414, 1998.
-  G. Shao, D. Kibira, and K. Lyons, “A Virtual Machining Model For Sustainability Analysis,” Proc. of ASME 2010 Int. Design Engineering Technical Conf. & Computers and Information in Engineering Conf., ASME CIE 2010, DETC2010-28743.
-  A. Hayashi, R. Iwase, R. Sato, and K. Shirase, “Measurement and Simulation of Energy Consumption of Feed Drive Systems,” J. of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 203-212, 2014.
-  N. Diaz, S. Choi, M. Helu, Y. Chen, S. Jayanathan, Y. Yasui, D. Kong, S. Pavanaskar, and D. Dornfeld, “Machine Tool Design and Operation Strategies for Green Manufacturing,” Proc. of 4th CIRP Int. Conf. on High Performance Cutting, Gifu, Japan, pp. 271-276, 2010.
-  Environmental Industries Office, Environmental Policy Division, Industrial Science and Technology Policy and Environment Bureau, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan, “Guide for Material Flow Cost Accounting (ver.1),” 2007.
-  D. Ben-Arieh, “Cost estimation system for machined parts,” Int. J. of Production Research, Vol.38, No.17, pp. 4481-4494, 2000.
-  P.A. Cauchick-Miguel and N.L. Coppini, “Cost per piece determination in machining process: An alternative approach,” Int. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.36, Issue 8, pp. 939-946, 1996.
-  H. Narita and H. Fujimoto, “Analysis of Environmental Impact Due to Machine Tool Operation,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 49-55, 2009.
-  H. Narita, “A Study of Automatic Determination of Cutting Conditions to Minimize Machining Cost,” Procedia CIRP, Vol.7, pp. 217-221, 2013.
-  H. Narita, K. Shirase, E. Arai, and H. Fujimoto, “An Accuracy-Prediction Model Taking Tool Deformation and Geometric Machine-Tool Error into Consideration,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 235-242, 2010.
-  H. Narita, L.Y. Chen, H. Fujimoto, K. Shirase, and E. Arai, “Trial-Less Machining Using Virtual Machining Simulator for Ball End Mill Operation,” Int. J. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, Vol.49, No.1, pp. 50-55, 2006.
-  M. Hao, Y. Mizugaki, and M. Sakamoto, “Development of CAM System Based on Enhanced Z-map Model: A New Method of an Offset Surface Generation,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.60, No.2, pp. 275-279, 1994. (in Japanese)
-  G. Yücesan and Y. Altintas, “Prediction of Ball End Milling Forces,” J. of Engineering for Industry, Trans. of ASME, Vol.118, No.1, pp. 95-103, 1996.
-  SETAC, “Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: A Code of Practice,” 1993.
-  J. A. Brimson, “Activity Accounting: An Activity-Based Costing Approach,” John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1997.
-  M. Anzai, “The Cutting Characteristic of Mold Steel Under The High-Speed Milling Condition,” Nachi Technical Report, Vol.11 A1, 2006. (in Japanese)
-  H. Narita, H. Kawamura, T. Norihisa, L.Y. Chen, H. Fujimoto, and T. Hasebe, “Development of Prediction System for Environmental Burden for Machine Tool Operation (1st Report, Proposal of Calculation Method of Environmental Burden),” Int. J. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, Vol.49, No.4, pp. 1188-1195, 2006.
-  IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), “Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing,” 2007.