IJAT Vol.8 No.4 pp. 530-538
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2014.p0530


Feasibility Study on Design of Spindle Supported by High-Stiffness Water Hydrostatic Thrust Bearing

Yohichi Nakao, Kenji Suzuki, Kohei Yamada,
and Kohei Nagasaka

Kanagawa University, 3-27-1 Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686, Japan

December 17, 2013
April 18, 2014
July 5, 2014
water hydrostatic bearing, spindle, ultraprecision machine tool, bearing stiffness, diamond turning

The machining accuracy of ultra-precision machine tools relies on the performance of the spindle and linear table. The machining accuracy of ultra-precision machine tools is now at the level of several tens of nanometers. In order for ultra-precision machine tools to achieve machining accuracy, a precise spindle system is indispensible. High bearing stiffness is particularly important to minimize displacement due to the cutting force. This paper considers a spindle design supported by high-stiffness water hydrostatic thrust bearings. An objective of this study is to design a precision spindle supported by water hydrostatic thrust bearings with 1 kN/µm bearing stiffness. The bearing restrictors are chosen so that the highest stiffness can be obtained for given bearing parameters. The influences of gap sizes and supply water pressure on the bearing stiffness are presented. Based on the feasibility study done on the design of highstiffness water hydrostatic thrust bearings, the spindle is designed and developed. The influences of the water pressure on the spindle deformation and bearing stiffness are also investigated.

Cite this article as:
Y. Nakao, K. Suzuki, K. Yamada, and <. Nagasaka, “Feasibility Study on Design of Spindle Supported by High-Stiffness Water Hydrostatic Thrust Bearing,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.4, pp. 530-538, 2014.
Data files:
  1. [1] M. Davies, C. Evans, S. Patterson, R. Vohra, and B. Bergner, “Application of Precision Diamond Machining to the Manufacture of Micro-photonics Components,” Proc. of SPIE, Vol.5183, pp. 94-106, 2003.
  2. [2] D. Dornfeld, S. Min, and Y. Takeuchi, “Recent Advances in Mechanical Micromachining,” CIRP Annals, Vol.55, Issue 2, pp. 745-768, 2006.
  3. [3] T. Fujita, K. Kawashima, T. Miyajima, T. Ogiso, and T. Kagawa, “Effect of Servo Valve Dynamic on Precise Position Control of a Pneumatic Servo Table,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 43-48, 2008.
  4. [4] T. Shinshi, K. Sato, and A. Shimokohbe, “A Compact Aerostatic Spindle Integrated with an Axial Positioning Actuator forMicro and Ultra-Precision Machine Tools,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 56-63, 2008.
  5. [5] H. Yoshioka and H. Shinno, “Design Concept and Structural Configuration of Advanced Nano-Pattern Generator with Large Work Area “ANGEL”,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 38-44, 2011.
  6. [6] M. Kadotani, T. Kitagawa, S. Katto, T. Hirayama, T. Matsuoka, H. Yabe, and K. Sasaki, “Development of Pneumatic Servo Bearing Actuator for Nanometer Positioning,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.3, No.3, pp. 249-256, 2009.
  7. [7] K. Tanaka, S. Kimura, K. Suzuki, and T. Uematsu, “Development of an Ultra-precision Machine Tool,” J. of the Japan Society for Abrasive Technology, Vol.51, No.5, pp. 302-307, 2007. (in Japanese)
  8. [8] J. Bryan, “Design and Construction of an Ultraprecision 84 Inch Diamond Turning Machine,” J. of The Int. Societies for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 13-17, 1979.
  9. [9] Y. Nakao and Y. Sagesaka, “Water Drive Spindle for Diamond Turning Machine,” Proc. of the third int. conf. on leading edge manufacturing in 21st century, pp. 449-454, 2005.
  10. [10] A. Slocum, P. Scagnetti, N. Kane, and C. Brunner, “Design of Self-Compensated,Water-Hydrostatic Bearings,” Precision Engineering, Vol.17, No.3, pp. 173-185, 1995.
  11. [11] S. Okuyama, A. Yui, M. Kumagai, and T. Kitajima, “Development of a Linear-Motor-Driven Table with Hydrostatic Water Bearing,” Trans. of Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Ser. C, Vol.75, No.750, pp. 454-459, 2009. (in Japanese)
  12. [12] N. Kusui, S. Hayama, and M. Yoshikawa, “A Study on Linear Motion Stage Using Water-hydrostatic Bearing,” Trans. of Japan Society of Precision Engineering, Vol.65, No.8, pp. 1153-1157, 1999. (in Japanese)
  13. [13] Y. Nishitani, S. Yoshimito, and K. Somaya, “Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Water Hydrostatic Porous Thrust Bearings,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.5, No.6, pp. 773-779, 2011.
  14. [14] Y. Nakao, M. Mimura, and F. Kobayashi, “Water Energy Drive Spindle Supported by Water Hydrostatic Bearing for Ultra-Precision Machine Tool,” Proc. of ASPE 2003 Annual Meeting, pp. 199-202, 2003.
  15. [15] Y. Nakao and Y. Sagesaka, “Development of Water Drive Spindle,” Proc. of the 6th JFPS Int. Symposium on Fluid Power, CD-ROM, 2005.
  16. [16] Y. Nakao and K. Suzuki, “Development of Spindle with Water Hydrostatic Bearings for Ultra Precision Machine Tools,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. ofManufacturing Technology Engineers 2012, pp. 33-36, 2012.
  17. [17] Y. Nakao, S. Nakatsugawa, M. Komori, and K. Suzuki, “Design of Short-Pipe Restrictor of Hydrostatic Thrust Bearings,” Proc. of ASME 2012 Int. Mechanical Congress and Exposition, CD-ROM, 2012.
  18. [18] A. H. Slocum, “Precision Machine Design, Society of Manufacturing Engineers,” 601, 1992.
  19. [19] T. Sugano, K. Takeuchi, Y. Yoshida, and N. Ikawa, “Diamond turning of an aluminum alloy for mirror,” CIRP Annals, Vol.36, Issue 1, pp. 17-20, 1987.
  20. [20] H. E. Merritt, “Hydraulic Control Systems,” John Wiley & Sons, 1967.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Nov. 08, 2019