Predictive Cutting Force Model and Cutting Force Chart for Milling with Cutter Axis Inclination
Takashi Matsumura*, Motohiro Shimada**, Kazunari Teramoto**,
and Eiji Usui*
*Tokyo Denki University, 5 Senjyu Asahi-cho, Adachi-ku, Tokyo 120-8551, Japan
**Toyota Central R&D Labs. Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192, Japan
A force model for milling with cutter axis inclination is presented. The model predicts the cutting force and chip flow direction. Three-dimensional chip flow is interpreted as a piling up of the orthogonal cuttings in the planes containing the cutting velocities and the chip flow velocities in the inclined coordinate system with a ball end mill. The chip flow direction is determined to minimize the cutting energy consumed into the shear energy on the shear plane and the friction energy on the rake face. Then, the cutting force is predicted in the chip flow determined model. The presented cutting model is verified by comparing the predicted cutting forces to the measured forces in the actual cutting tests. As an advantage of the presented force model, the change in the chip flow direction during one rotation of the cutter is also predicted in the simulation for the cutter axis inclination and the cutting parameters. In the simulation, the effect of cutter axis inclination on the cutting process is discussed in terms of the tool wear and surface finish. The cutting force charts, in which the maximum values of the positive and the negative cutting forces are simulated for the inclination angles, are presented to review the cutter axis inclination. The applicable cutter axis inclination can be determined by taking into account the thresholds of the cutting force components.
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