IJAT Vol.6 No.5 pp. 618-626
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2012.p0618

Development Report:

Low-Cost 3D Printing of Controlled Porosity Ceramic Parts

Olaf Diegel*, Andrew Withell**, Deon de Beer***,
Johan Potgieter*, and Frazer Noble*

*Massey University, Building 106, Gate 4, Albany Highway, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

**Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand

***Vaal University of Technology, Andries Potgieter Blvd, Vanderbijlpark. PBag X021, Vanderbijlpark, 1900, South Africa

March 24, 2012
August 10, 2012
September 5, 2012
3D printing, ceramic, clay, controlled porosity
This research was initiated to develop low cost powders that could be used on 3D printers. The paper describes experiments that were undertaken with different compositions of clay-based powders, and different print saturation settings. An unexpected sideeffect of printing ceramic parts was the ability to control the part porosity by varying the powder recipe and print parameters. The cost of clay-based powder was, depending on the specific ingredients used, around US$2.00/Kg.
Cite this article as:
O. Diegel, A. Withell, D. de Beer, J. Potgieter, and F. Noble, “Low-Cost 3D Printing of Controlled Porosity Ceramic Parts,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.6 No.5, pp. 618-626, 2012.
Data files:
  1. [1] E. Grunda, “Castle IslandsWorldwide Guide to Rapid Prototyping,”,
    retrieved 23/03/2012
  2. [2] C. K. Chua and K. F. Leong, “Rapid Prototyping: Principles and Applications,” 2nd Ed., World Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore, 2003.
  3. [3] Ceramic Tile Institute of America, “Glossary of Terms,”,
    Accessed March, 2011
  4. [4] Z-shop,,
    Retrieved 23/03/2012
  5. [5] R. Lowmunkong, T. Sohmura, Y. Suzuki, S. Matsuya, “Fabrication of freeform bone-filling calcium phosphate ceramics by gypsum 3D printing method,” J. of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, Vol.90B, Issue 2, pp. 531-539, Aug. 2009.
  6. [6] P. H. Warnke, H. Seitz, F. Warnke, S. T. Becker, S. Sivananthan, E. Sherry, Q. Liu, J. Wiltfang, and T. Douglas, “Ceramic scaffolds produced by computer-assisted 3D printing and sintering: Characterization and biocompatibility investigations,” J. of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol.93B, Issue 1, pp. 212-217, Apr. 2010.
  7. [7] B. Nan, X. Yin, L. Zhang, and L. Cheng, “Three-Dimensional Printing of Ti3SiC2-Based Ceramics,” J. of the American Ceramic Society, Article published online: Feb. 2011.
  8. [8] B. Utela, D. Storti, R. Anderson, and M. Ganter, “A review of process development steps for new material systems in three dimensional printing (3DP),” J. of Manufacturing Processes, Vol.10, pp. 96-104, 2008.
  9. [9] M. Ganter et al., “open 3D printing forum,”,
    Mar. 2011.
  10. [10] Yahoo Forums, “DIY 3D Printing and Fabrication,”,
    Mar. 2011.
  11. [11] F. E.Wiria et al., “Printing of Titanium implant prototype,” J.Mater. Design, 2010, “Ink-jet printing of highly loaded particulate suspensions,” MRS Bulletin, Vol.28, Issue 11, pp. 815-818, 2003.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on May. 10, 2024