Calibration of Kinematic Parameters of Robot Arm Using Laser Tracking System: Compensation for Non-Geometric Errors by Neural Networks and Selection of Optimal Measuring Points by Genetic Algorithm
Seiji Aoyagi*, Masato Suzuki*, Tomokazu Takahashi*,
Jun Fujioka**, and Yoshitsugu Kamiya***
*Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680, Japan
**Ishikawa National College of Technology, Ta-1, Kitatyujo, Tsubata-machi, Kahoku, Ishkawa 929-0392, Japan
***Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
Offline teaching based on high positioning accuracy of a robot arm is desired to take the place of manual teaching. In offline teaching, joint angles are calculated using a kinematic model of the robot arm. However, a nominal kinematic model does not consider the errors arising in manufacturing or assembly, not to mention the non-geometric errors arising in gear transmission, arm compliance, etc. Therefore, a method of precisely calibrating the parameters in a kinematic model is required. For this purpose, it is necessary to measure the three-dimensional (3-D) absolute position of the tip of a robot arm. In this paper, a laser tracking system is employed as the measurement apparatus. The geometric parameters in the robot kinematic model are calibrated by minimizing errors between the measured positions and the predicted ones based on the model. The residual errors caused by non-geometric parameters are further reduced by using neural networks, realizing high positioning accuracy of sub-millimeter order. To speed up the calibration process, a smaller number of measuring points is preferable. Optimal measuring points, which realize high positioning accuracy while remaining small in number, are selected using Genetic Algorithm (GA).
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