Quantitative Performance Analysis of Exoskeleton Augmenting Devices – Muscle Suit – for Manual Worker
Yoshiki Muramatsu, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Yutaka Sato,
He Jiaou, Takuya Hashimoto, and Hiroshi Kobayashi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-14-6 Kudankita, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0073, Japan
Exoskeleton systems have been largely developed in spite that quantitative performance estimation has not been reported so far. Consequently, we have been developing the wearable muscle suit for direct and physical motion supports with relevant reports on the performance. The McKibben artificial muscle has introduced “muscle suit” compact, lightweight, reliable, and wearable “assist-bots” enabling users to lift and carry heavy objects. Applying integral electromyography (IEMG), we show the results of quantitative suit performance and posture-preserving efficiency. However, for practical use, lifting seems to be one of the most important tasks for users. We improve the forearm so that the muscle suit assists the user in vertical lifting. Load carrying and lifting experiments show the muscle suit’s effectiveness.
-  R. A. Heinlein, “Starship Troopers,” New York, Putnam, 1959.
-  G. L. Cobb, “Walking motion,” U.S. Patent 2 010 482, 1935.
-  P. Filippi, “Device for the automatic control of the articulation of the knee applicable to a prosthesis of the thigh,” U.S. Patent 2 305 291, 1942.
-  J. H. Murphy, “Leg brace,” U.S. Patent 2 573 866, 1951.
-  D. Hristic, M. Vukobratovic, and M. Timotijevic, “New model of autonomous’active suit’ for distrophic patients,” in Proc. Int. Symp. External Control Hum. Extremities, 1981, pp. 33-42, 1981.
-  A. Seireg and J. G. Grundmann, “Design of a multitask exoskeletal walking device for paraplegics,” in Biomechanics of Medical Devices, New York, Marcel Dekker, 1981, pp. 569-644, 1981.
-  K. Kong and D. Jeon, “Design and control of an exoskeleton for the elderly and patients,” IEEE/ASME Trans.Mechatronics, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 428-432, Aug. 2006.
-  Y. Mori, J. Okada, and K. Takayama, “Development of straight style transfer equipment for lower limbs disabled “ABLE”,” in Proc. IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. Adv. Intell. Mechatronics, 2005, pp. 1176-1181, 2005.
-  N. Costa and D. G. Caldwell, “Control of a biomimetic “softactuated” 10 DoF lower body exoskeleton,” in Proc. 1st IEEE/RASEMBS Int. Conf. Biomed. Robot. Biomechatronics (BioRob), Pisa, Italy, Feb. 2006, pp. 495-501, 2006.
-  M. W. Thring, “Robots and Telechirs: Manipulators With Memory; Remote Manipulators; Machine Limbs for the Handicapped,” Chichester, U.K., Ellis Horwood, 1983.
-  D. C. Johnson, D. W. Repperger, and G. Thompson, “Development of a mobility assist for the paralyzed, amputee, and spastic patient,” in Proc. 1996 Southern Biomed. Eng. Conf., pp. 67-70, 1996.
-  C. Acosta-Marquez and D. A. Bradley, “The analysis, design, and implementation of a model of an exoskeleton to support mobility,” in Proc. 2005 IEEE Int. Conf. Rehabil. Robot. (ICORR), pp. 99-102, 2005.
-  E. Rocon, J. M. Belda-Lois, A. F. Ruiz, M. Manto, J. C. Moreno, and J. L. Pons, “Design and Validation of a Rehabilitation Robotic Exoskeleton for Tremor Assessment and Suppression,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING, Vol.15, No.3, September 2007, pp. 367-378, 2007.
-  G. Rosati, P. Gallina, and S. Masiero, “Design, Implementation and Clinical Tests of a Wire-Based Robot for Neurorehabilitation,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING, Vol.15, No.4, December 2007, pp. 560-569, 2007.
-  C. G. Burgar, P. S. Lum, P. C. Shor, H. F. Machiel Van der Loos, “Development of robots for rehabilitation therapy: The Palo Alto VA/Stanford experience,” J. of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol.37, No.6, November/December 2000, pp. 663-673, 2000.
-  R. S. Mosher, “Handyman to Hardiman,” Soc. Autom. Eng. Int. (SAE), Detroit MI, Tech. Rep. 670088, 1967.
-  K. E. Gilbert, “Exoskeleton prototype project: Final report on phase I,” General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY, GE Tech. Rep. S-67-1011, 1967.
-  K. E. Gilbert and P. C. Callan, “Hardiman I prototype,” General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY, GE Tech. Rep. S-68-1081, 1968.
-  B. R. Fick and J. B. Makinson, “Hardiman I prototype for machine augmentation of human strength and endurance: Final report,” General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY, GE Tech. Rep. S-71-1056, 1971.
-  E. Guizzo and H. Goldstein, “The rise of the body bots,” IEEE Spectr., Vol.42, No.10, pp. 50-56, Oct. 2005.
-  G. T. Huang, “Wearable robots,” Technol. Rev., pp. 70-73, Jul./Aug. 2004.
-  “2006 ARO in review,” U.S. Army Research Laboratory, U.S. Army Research Office, Adelphi, MD, 2006.
-  H. Kazerooni and R. Steger, “The Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton,” Trans. ASME, J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, Vol.128, pp. 14-25, Mar. 2006.
-  H. Kawamoto and Y. Sankai, “Power assist system HAL-3 for gait disorder person,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Comput. Helping People Special Needs (ICCHP) (Lecture Notes on Computer Science), Vol.2398, Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2002.
-  H. Kawamoto, S. Lee, S. Kanbe, and Y. Sankai, “Power assist method for HAL-3 using EMG-based feedback controller,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Syst., Man, Cybern., 2003, pp. 1648-1653.
-  K. Suzuki, G. Mito, H. Kawamoto, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Sankai, “Intention-Based Walking Support for Paraplegia Patients with Robot Suit HAL,” Advanced Robotics Vol.21, No.12, 2007, pp. 1441-1469.
-  A. Tsukahara, R. Kawanishi, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Sankai, “Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit Transfer Support for Complete Paraplegic Patients with Robot Suit HAL,” Advanced Robotics, Vol.24, No.11, pp. 1615-1638, 2010.
-  C. J. Walsh, K. Pasch, and H. Herr, “An autonomous, under actuated exoskeleton for load-carrying augmentation,” in Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots Syst. (IROS), Beijing, China, 2006, pp. 1410-1415, 2006.
-  C. J. Walsh, D. Paluska, K. Pasch, W. Grand, A. Valiente, and H. Herr, “Development of a lightweight, under actuated exoskeleton for loadcarrying augmentation,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., Orlando, FL, 2006, pp. 3485-3491, 2006.
-  C. J. Walsh, K. Endo, and H. Herr, “Quasi-passive leg exoskeleton for load-carrying augmentation,” Int. J. Hum. Robot. Vol.4, No.3, pp. 487-506.
-  H. Kobayashi, D. Matsushita, Y. Ishida, and K. Kikuchi, “New Robot Technology Concept Applicable to Human Physical Support – The Concept and Possibility of theMuscle Suit (Wearable Muscular Support Apparatus) –,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.14 No.1, pp. 46-53, 2002.
-  H. Kobayashi, T. Shiiban, and Y. Ishida, “Realization of All 7 Motionsfor the Upper Limb by a Muscle Suit,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.16, No.5, pp. 504-512, 2004.
-  H. Kobayashi and H. Suzuki, “Development of a New Shoulder Mechanism for a Muscle Suit,” IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots & Systems (IROS’05) TAII-13, 2005, pp. 2727-2732, 2005.
-  K. Hiroshi and N. Hirokazu, “Development of Muscle Suit for Supporting Manual Worker,” IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Robot and Systems, 2007, pp. 1769-1774, 2007.
-  H. Kobayashi, T. Aida, and T. Hashimoto, “Muscle Suit Development and Factory Application,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.3, No.6, pp. 709-715, 2009.
-  National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health:
-  European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
-  C. P. Chou and B. Hannaford, “Measurement and Modelling of McKibben Pneumatic Artificial Muscles,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.12, pp. 90-102, Feb. 1996.
-  H. F. Schulte Jr, “The characteristics of the McKibben artificial muscle,” In The Application of external power in prosthetics and orthotics, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington D. C., 1961.