single-au.php

IJAT Vol.3 No.4 pp. 445-456
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2009.p0445
(2009)

Review:

Monitoring and Control of Cutting Forces in Machining Processes: A Review

Atsushi Matsubara and Soichi Ibaraki

Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan

Received:
March 20, 2009
Accepted:
April 10, 2009
Published:
July 5, 2009
Keywords:
milling, cutting force, machining process monitoring, machining process control
Abstract

Much research has gone into machining process monitoring and control. This paper reviews monitoring and control schemes of cutting force and torque. Sensors to measure cutting force and torque, as well as their indirect estimation, are reviewed. Feedback control schemes and model-based feedforward scheduling schemes of cutting forces, as well as tool path optimization schemes for cutting force regulation, are reviewed. The authors’ works are also briefly presented.

Cite this article as:
A. Matsubara and S. Ibaraki, “Monitoring and Control of Cutting Forces in Machining Processes: A Review,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.3, No.4, pp. 445-456, 2009.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] A. Matsubara, “Research and Development on Intelligent Control of Machine Tools,” Proc. of 9th Int’l Conf. on Production Engineering, Design, and Control (Keynote speech), pp. 10-12, 2009.
  2. [2] A. Matsubara, “Current Status and Trends of Monitoring and Control Technology in Machining Process,” J. of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, 41-1, pp. 781-786, 2002 (in Japanese).
  3. [3] S. Kurada and C. Bradley, “A review of machine vision sensors for tool condition monitoring,” Computers in Industry, 34-1, pp. 55-72, 1997.
  4. [4] S. Ibaraki, A. Matsubara, and M. Morozumi, “Efficiency Comparison of Cutting Strategies for End Milling Processes under Feedrate Scheduling,” Int’l J. of Automation Technology, 2-5, pp. 377-383, 2008.
  5. [5] B. Najafi and H. Hakim, “A comparative study of non-parametric spectral estimators for application in machine vibration analysis,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 6-6, pp. 551-574, 1992.
  6. [6] A. G. Rehorn, J. Jiang, P. E. Orban, and E. V. Bordatchev, “State-of-the-art methods and results in tool condition monitoring: a review,” Int’l J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 26, pp. 693-710, 2005.
  7. [7] G. Byrne, D. Dornfeld, I. Inasaki, G. Ketteler, W. Konig, and R. Teti, “Tool condition monitoring (TCM) – the status of research and industrial application,” Annals of the CIRP, 44-2, pp. 541-567, 1995.
  8. [8] P. W. Prickett and C. Johns, “An overview of approaches to end milling tool monitoring,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 39, pp. 105-122, 1999.
  9. [9] M. Shiraishi, “Scope of in-process measurement, monitoring and control techniques in machining processes Part 1: In-process techniques for tools,” Precision Engineering, 10-4, pp. 179-189, 1988.
  10. [10] S. Y. Liang, R. L. Hecker, and R. G. Landers, “Machining process monitoring and control: The state-of-the-art,” Trans. of ASME, J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 126-2, pp. 297-310, 2004.
  11. [11] D. E. Dimla, “Sensor signals for tool-wear monitoring in metal cutting operations – a review of methods,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 40-8, pp. 1073-1098, 2000.
  12. [12] K. Jemielniak, “Commercial Tool Condition Monitoring Systems,” Int’l J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 15, pp. 711-721, 1999.
  13. [13] K. Furutani, “Piezoelectric sensors,” J. of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, 45-4, pp. 296-301, 2006 (in Japanese).
  14. [14] Kistler, http://www.kistler.com
  15. [15] D. Kono, A. Matsubara, I. Yamaji, and T. Fujita, “High-precision machining by measurement and compensation of motion error,” Proc. of 4th Int’l Conf. on Leading Edge Manufacturing in 21st Century, pp. 809-812, 2007.
  16. [16] H. Yoshioka, H. Hashizume, and H. Shinno, “In-process microsensor for ultraprecision machining,” IEE Proceedings – Science, Measurement and Technology, 151-2, pp. 121-125, 2004.
  17. [17] J. Tlusty and G. C. Andrews, “A critical review of sensor for unmanned machining,” Annals of the CIRP, 32-2, pp. 563-572, 1983.
  18. [18] H. Ohzeki, A. Mashine, H. Aoyama, and I. Inasaki, “Development of a magnetostrictive torque sensor for milling process monitoring,” J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 121, pp. 615-622, 1999.
  19. [19] M. Jun, B. Ozdoganlar, R. DeVor, S. Kapoor, A. Kirchheim, and G. Schaffner, “Evaluation of a spindle based force sensor for monitoring and fault diagnosis of machining operations,” Int’l J. of Machine Tool and Manufacture, 42, pp. 741-751, 2002.
  20. [20] ARTIS,
    http://www.artis.de/
  21. [21] Montronix,
    http://www.montronix.com/
  22. [22] J. H. Kim, H. K. Chang, D. C. Han, and D. Y. Jang, “Cutting Force Estimation by Measuring Spindle Displacement in Milling Process,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 54-1, pp. 67-70, 2005.
  23. [23] A. Albrecht, S. S. Park, Y. Altintas, and G. Pritschow, “High frequency bandwidth cutting force measurement in milling using capacitance displacement sensors,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 45-9, pp. 993-1008, 2005.
  24. [24] G. B. Jeong, D. H. Kim, and D. Y. Jang, “Real time monitoring and diagnosis system development in turning through measuring a roundness error based on three-point method,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 45-12/13, pp. 1494-1503, 2005.
  25. [25] H. J. Ahn, S. Jeon, and D. C. Han, “Error analysis of the cylindrical capacitive sensor for active magnetic bearing spindles,” ASME Trans., J. of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 122, pp. 102-107, 2000.
  26. [26] S. Auchet, P. Chevrier, M. Lacour, and P. Lipinski, “A new method of cutting force measurement based on command voltages of active electro-magnetic bearings,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 44, pp. 1441-1449, 2004.
  27. [27] Yamazaki Mazak Corporation,
    http://www.mazak.jp
  28. [28] A. A. D. Sarhan, A. Matsubara, M. Sugihara, H. Saraie, S. Ibaraki, and Y. Kakino, “Monitoring Method of Cutting Force by Using Additional Spindle Sensors,” JSME Int’l J., Series C, 49-2, pp. 307- 315, 2006.
  29. [29] A. A. D. Sarhan, “Monitoring of Cutting Forces by the Intelligent Spindle,” Ph.D. dissertation, Kyoto University, 2007.
  30. [30] C. W. Lin, J. F. Tu, and J. Kamman, “An integrated thermomechanical- dynamic model to characterize motorized machine tool spindles during very high speed rotation,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 43-10, pp. 1035-1050, 2003.
  31. [31] M. Weck, P. McKeown, R. Bonse, and U. Herbst, “Reduction and Compensation of Thermal Errors in Machine Tools,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 44-2, pp. 589-598, 1995.
  32. [32] T. Tsuneyoshi, “Spindle preload measurement and analysis,” Proc. of 2007 ASPE Summer Topical Meeting, 2007.
  33. [33] Y. Altintas and Y. Cao, “Virtual Design and Optimization of Machine Tool Spindles,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 54-1, pp. 379-382, 2005.
  34. [34] F. P. Wardle, S. J. Lacey, and S. Y. Poon, “Dynamic and static characteristics of a wide speed range machine tool spindle,” Precision Engineering, 5-4, pp. 175-183, 1983.
  35. [35] M. Rantatalo, J.-O. Aidanpää, B. Göransson, and P. Norman, “Milling machine spindle analysis using FEM and non-contact spindle excitation and response measurement,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 47-7/8, pp. 1034-1045, 2007.
  36. [36] Y. Altintas and S. S. Park, “Dynamic Compensation of Spindle- Integrated Force Sensors,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 53-1, pp. 305-308, 2004.
  37. [37] Y. Altintas and Y. Cao, “A General Method for the Modeling of Spindle-Bearing Systems,” J. of Mechanical Design, 126-6, pp. 1089-1104, 2004.
  38. [38] A. Matsubara, S. Ahmed, M. Sugihara, and S. Ibaraki, “Measurement of Spindle Stiffness for the Development of Intelligent Spindle,” Proc. of the 2007 Spring JSPE Semiannual Meeting, pp. 111-112, 2007 (in Japanese).
  39. [39] Y. Altintas, “Prediction of cutting forces and tool breakage in milling from feed drive current measurement,” J. of Engineering for Industry, 114, pp. 386-392, 1992.
  40. [40] J. M. Lee, D. K. Choi, J. Kim, and C. N. Chu, “Real-time tool breakage monitoring for NC milling process,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 44-1, pp. 59-62, 1995.
  41. [41] K. Matsushima, P. Bertok, and T. Sara, “In-process detection of tool breakage by monitoring the spindle motor current of machine tool,” Measurement and Control for Batch Manufacturing, The Winter Annual Meeting of ASME, New York, pp. 121-134, 1982.
  42. [42] Fanuc Ltd.,
    http://www.fanuc.co.jp
  43. [43] Omative Systems,
    http://www.omative.com
  44. [44] Data Spirit,
    http://www.nsx.co.jp/ (in Japanese).
  45. [45] T.-Y. Kim, J. Woo, D. Shin, and J. Kim, “Indirect cutting force measurement in multi-axis simultaneous NC milling processes,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 39-11, pp. 1717-1731, 1999.
  46. [46] H. Shinno, H. Hashizume, and H. Yoshloka, “Sensor-less Monitoring of Cutting Force during Ultraprecision Machining,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 52-1, pp. 303-306, 2003.
  47. [47] D. Kurihara, Y. Kakinuma, and S. Katsura, “Sensor-less Cutting Force Monitoring using Parallel Disturbance Observer,” Int’l J. of Automation Technology, 3-4, 2009.
  48. [48] H. Konrad, R. Isermann, and H. U. Oette, “Supervision of tool wear and surface quality during end milling operations,” IFAC Workshop Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, pp. 507-513, 1994.
  49. [49] P. Huang, J. C. Chen, and C. Chou, “A statistical approach in detecting tool breakage in end milling operations,” J. of Industrial Technology, 15-3, pp. 2-7, 1999.
  50. [50] Y. J. Choi, M. S. Park, and C. N. Chu, “Prediction of drill failure using features extraction in time and frequency domains of feed motor current,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 48, pp. 29-29, 2008.
  51. [51] X. Li, “On-line detection of the breakage of small diameter drills using current signature wavelet transform,” Int’l J. ofMachine Tools and Manufacture, 39-1, pp. 157-164, 1999.
  52. [52] X. Li, G. Ouyang, and Z. Liang, “Complexity measure of motor current signals for tool flute breakage detection in end milling,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 48, pp. 371-379, 2008.
  53. [53] S. Ibaraki, M. Sakahira, H. Saraie, A. Matsubara, and Y. Kakino, “On the Monitoring of Cutting Forces in End Milling Processes – An Estimation Method based on Geometrical Combination of Force Vectors of Servo Motors and a Spindle Motor – ,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, 70-8, pp. 1091-1095, 2004 (in Japanese).
  54. [54] Y. Kakino, Y. Ihara, and A. Shinohara, “Accuracy Inspection of NC Machine Tools by Double Ball Bar Method,” Hanser Publishers, 1993.
  55. [55] S. Ibaraki, A. Matsubara, T. Yasuda, Y. Kakino, and M. Murozumi, “On the Monitoring of Cutting Forces in End Milling Processes (2nd Report) – An Application to the Identification of a Prediction Model of Cutting Forces within Canned Cycles and Feedrate Control – ,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, 72-2, pp. 224-228, 2006 (in Japanese).
  56. [56] H. Saraie, M. Sakahira, S. Ibaraki, A. Matsubara, Y. Kakino, and M. Fujishima, “Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Cutting Force Based on Spindle Motor Currents in Machining Centers,” Proc. of the 2nd Int’l Conf. of LEM21, pp. 555-560. 2003.
  57. [57] A. Matsubara, “Recent research and development trends in linear motor drives,” (technical article), Kikai Gijutsu, Nikkan Kogyo Shinbun, Ltd., 53-5, pp. 18-22, 2005 (in Japanese).
  58. [58] H. Otsubo and I. Oshita, “Development of high-precision machining center,” Proc. of the 2005 Fall JSPE Semiannual Meeting, pp. 9-10, 2005 (in Japanese).
  59. [59] D. Kono, S. Ibaraki, Y. Otsuka, and I. Oshita, “A Study on the Estimation of Cutting Forces by Using Motor Currents in Feed Drives,” Proc. of the 2006 Spring JSPE Semiannual Meeting, pp. 175-176,2006 (in Japanese).
  60. [60] Y. Oda, H. Nakagawa, K. Ogawa, and Y. Kakino, “Monitoring of Cutting Forces in End Milling Processes on Machining Center with Linear Motor’s Drives,” Proc. of the 2009 Spring JSPE Semiannual Meeting, pp. 571-572, 2009 (in Japanese).
  61. [61] S. M. Pandit and S. Kashou, “A data dependent systems strategy of on-line tool wear sensing,” Trans. of the ASME, J. of Engineering for Industry, 104-3, pp. 217-223, 1982.
  62. [62] T. N. Moore and Z. F. Reif, “Detection of tool breakage using vibration data,” Proc. of North American Manufacturing Research Conf., pp. 45-50, 1992.
  63. [63] S. Kim and B. E. Klamecki, “Milling cutter wear monitoring using spindle shaft vibration,” Trans. of ASME, J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 119, pp. 118-119, 1997.
  64. [64] H. Nakagawa, Y. Kurita, K. Ogawa, Y. Sugiyama, and H. Hasegawa, “Experimental Analysis of Chatter Vibration in End-Milling Using Laser Doppler Vibrometers,” Int’l J. of Automation Technology, 2-6, pp. 431-438, 2008.
  65. [65] K. Iwata and T. Moriwaki, “An Application of Acoustic Emission Measurement to In-Process Sensing of Tool Wear,” Annals of the CIRP, 26-1, pp. 21-26, 1977.
  66. [66] A. Sampath and S. Vajpayee, “Tool health monitoring using acoustic emission,” Int’l J. of Prod. Res., 25-5, pp. 703-719, 1987.
  67. [67] M. Liu and S. Y. Liang, “Analytical modeling of acoustic emission for monitoring of peripheral milling process,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 31-4, pp. 589-606, 1991.
  68. [68] Y. Altintas and M. Weck, “Chatter stability of metal cutting and grinding,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 53-2, pp. 619-642, 2004.
  69. [69] A. G. Ulsoy and Y. Koren, “Control of Machining Processes,” ASME J. of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 115, pp. 301-308, 1993.
  70. [70] Y. Altintas, “Manufacturing Automation: Metal Cutting Mechanics, Machine Tool Vibrations, and CNC Design,” Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  71. [71] M. Fujishima, Y. Kakino, A. Matsubara, T. Sato, and I. Nishiura, “A study on advanced drilling by intelligent machine tools (1st Report) – Monitoring of tool failure and improvement of productivity – ,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, 66-11, pp. 1792-1796, 2000.
  72. [72] T. Sato, Y. Kakino, A. Matsubara, M. Fujishima, I. Nishiura, and K. Kamatani, “A study on drilling process control by intelligent machine tools (1st Report) – Determination of cutting condition for drilling – ,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, 66-8, pp. 1270-1274, 2000.
  73. [73] T. Sato, Y. Kakino, A. Matsubara, M. Fujishima, and I. Nishiura, “High Speed and High Productive Drilling by Intelligent Machine Tools – Integration of the Cutting Conditions Planning and Adaptive Control for Drilling– ,” Proc. of Japan-US Symposium on Factory Automation, 2000.
  74. [74] Y. Kakino, Y. Yamaoka, A. Nagae, Y. Suzuki, and T. Muraki, “High Speed, High Productive Tapping by Intelligent Machine Tools,” Proc. of 2000 Int’l Conf. on Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Manufacturing Automation, pp. 145-149, 2000.
  75. [75] Y. Yamaoka, Y. Kakino, T. Sato, and Y. Suzuki, “High Speed, High Productive Tapping by Intelligent Machine Tools (2nd Report) – Prevention of tap tool breakage and improvement of productivity by adaptive control – ,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, 67-8, pp. 1338-1342, 2001.
  76. [76] R. J. Furness, A. G. Ulsoy, and C. L. Wu, “Supervisory Control of Drilling,” Trans. of ASME, J. of Engineering for Industry, 118, pp. 10-19, 1996.
  77. [77] O. Masory and Y. Koren, “Variable Gain Adaptive Control System for Turning,” J. of Manufacturing Systems, 2, pp. 165-173, 1983.
  78. [78] M. Tomizuka, J. H. Oh, and D. A. Dornfeld, “Model Reference Adaptive Control of the Milling Process,” Control of Manufacturing Processes and Robotic Systems, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, pp. 55-63, 1983.
  79. [79] A. G. Ulsoy and Y. Koren, “Applications of Adaptive Control to Machine Tool Process Control,” IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol.9, No.4, pp. 33-37, 1989.
  80. [80] R. G. Landers and A. G. Ulsoy, “Model-based Machining Force Control,” ASME J. of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol.122, No.3, pp. 521-527, 2000.
  81. [81] S. J. Rober and Y. C. Shin, “Control of Cutting Force for End Milling Using an Extended Model Reference Adaptive Control Schemes,” ASME J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol.118, pp. 339-347, 1996.
  82. [82] Y. Altintas, “Direct Adaptive Control of End Milling Process,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 34, pp. 461-472, 1994.
  83. [83] M. A. Elbestawi, Y. Mohamed, and L. Liu, “Application of Some Parameter Adaptive Control Algorithms in Machining,” ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol.112, No.4, pp. 611-617, 1990.
  84. [84] S. Kooi, “Robust Adaptive Control for Nonlinear End Milling Process,” Proc. of American Control Conf., Seattle, WA, pp. 2995-2999, 1995.
  85. [85] Y. S. Tang, S. T. Hwang, and Y. S. Wang, “Neural Network Controller for Constant Turning Force,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.34, No.4, pp. 453-460, 1994.
  86. [86] M. K. Kim, M. W. Cho, and K. Kim, “Applications of the Fuzzy Control Strategy to Adaptive Force Control of Non-Minimum Phase and Milling Operations,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.34, No.5, pp. 677-696, 1994.
  87. [87] Y. Liu, T. Cheng, and L. Zuo, “Adaptive Control Constraint of Machining Processes,” Int’l J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 17, pp. 720-726, 2001.
  88. [88] J. F. Tu, M. Corless, and J. Jeppson, “Robust control of high speed end milling with unknown process parameter and CNC delay,” Proc. of 2002 Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, 2002.
  89. [89] K. K. Wang, “Solid Modelling for Optimizing Metal Removal of Three-Dimensional NC End Milling,” Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 57-65, 1988.
  90. [90] K. Yamazaki, N. Kojima, C. Sakamoto, and T. Saito, “Real-Time Model Reference Adaptive Control of 3-D Sculptured Surface Machining,” Annals of CIRP, Vol.40, No.1, pp. 479-482, 1991.
  91. [91] Mastercam by CNC Software, Inc.
    http://www.mastercam.com/
  92. [92] NC Brain by Marubeni Information Systems, Co., Ltd.
    http://www.marubeni-sys.com/
  93. [93] Y. Kakino, H. Ohtsuka, H. Nakagawa, and T. Hirogaki, “NC Programming for Constant Cutting Force in Die Machining,” Proc. of 2000 Int’l Conf. on Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Manufacturing Automation, pp. 471-475, 2000.
  94. [94] Y. Kakino, H. Ohtsuka, H. Nakagawa, T. Hirogaki, and M. Sasaki, “A Study on Endmilling of Hardened Steel (1st Report) – Simplified Prediction Model for Cutting Forces and Control for Constant Cutting Forces Using this Model – ,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, 66-5, pp. 730-734, 2000 (in Japanese).
  95. [95] J. A. Cornell, “The Basic References in Quality Control,” Vol.8, Quality Press, 1990.
  96. [96] E. Budak, “Improving Productivity and Part Quality in Milling of Titanium Based Impellers by Chatter Suppression and Force Control,” Annals of CIRP, Vol.49, No.1, pp. 31-36, 2000.
  97. [97] Y. Altintas and S. Engin, “End Milling Force Algorithms for CAD Systems,” Annals of CIRP, Vol.40, No.1, pp. 31-34, 2001.
  98. [98] K. Teramoto, K. Iwata, and S. Hirai, “Development of Learning System with Process Model Selection for Control of Ball-End Milling,” Proc. of 7th Int’l Conf. on Production/Precision Engineering, pp. 461-466, 1994.
  99. [99] A. Spence and Y. Altintas, “CAD Assisted Adaptive Control for Milling,” Trans. of the ASME, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol.113, No.9, pp. 444-450, 1991.
  100. [100] N. D. Richards, B. K. Fussell, and R. B. Jerard, “Efficient NC Machining Using Off-Line Optimized Feedrates and On-Line Adaptive Control,” Proc. of 2002 IMECE, New Orleans, 2002.
  101. [101] B. K. Fussell, R. B. Jerard, and J. G. Hemmett, “Robust Feedrate Selection for 3-axis Machining Using Discrete Models,” ASME J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol.123, No.2, pp. 214-224, 2001.
  102. [102] S. Ibaraki, T. Ogawa, A. Matsubara, and Y. Kakino, “Model-based Learning Control of Cutting Forces in End Milling Processes,” 2002 Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, 1, pp. 401-408, 2002.
  103. [103] S. Ibaraki, D. Maeda, A. Matsubara, Y. Kakino, and T. Yasuda, “An autonomous optimization of tool paths in canned cycles for end milling,” Proc. of the 5th JSME Manufacturing and Machine Tool Conf., pp. 255-256, 2004 (in Japanese).
  104. [104] S. Ibaraki, T. Shimizu, and A. Matsubara, “A Long-term Control Scheme of Cutting Forces to Regulate Tool Life in End Milling Processes,” Proc. of 4th Int’l Conf. on Leading Edge Manufacturing in 21st Century, pp. 143-148, 2007.
  105. [105] T. Shimizu, S. Ibaraki, and A. Matsubara, “Study on the Control of Tool Life Implemented on Linear Motor Driven Machine Tools,” Proc. of the 7th Manufacturing and Machine Tool Conf., pp. 105-106, 2008 (in Japanese).
  106. [106] L. V. Colwel, “Real time computer diagnostics (A research tool for metal cutting),” Annals of CIRP, 28-1, pp. 49-52, 1979.
  107. [107] K. A. Hekman and S. Y. Liang, “Feedrate Optimization and Depth of Cut Control for Productivity and Part Parallelism in Grinding,” Int’l J. of Mechatronics, 9, pp. 447-462, 1999.
  108. [108] K. Nakamoto, K. Shirase, H. Wakamatsu, A. Tsumaya, and E. Arai, “Feed Back Machining Control Using Digital Copy Milling System,” Proc. of the 2002 Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, pp. 29-35, 2002.
  109. [109] K. Shirase, K. Nakamoto, E. Arai, and T. Moriwaki, “Real-Time Five-Axis Control Based on Digital Copy Milling Concept to Achieve Autonomous Milling,” Int’l J. of Automation Technology, 2-6, pp. 418-424, 2008.
  110. [110] D. Dragomatz and S. Mann, “Classified Bibliography of Literature on NC Milling Path Generation,” Computer Aided Design, 29-3, pp. 239-247, 1997.
  111. [111] W. A. Kline, R. E. Devor, and J. Lindberg, “Prediction of Cutting Forces in End Milling with Application to Cornering Cuts,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools Design and Research, 22, pp. 7-22, 1982.
  112. [112] J. Tlusty, S. Smith, and C. Zamudio, “New NC Routines for Quality in Milling,” Annals of the CIRP, 39-1, pp. 517-521, 1990.
  113. [113] S. Smith, E. Cheng, and C. Zamudio, “Computer-aided Generation of Optimum Chatter-free Pockets,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, 28, pp. 275-283, 1991.
  114. [114] I. Yamaji, “Intelligent Die/mold Manufacturing Systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Kyoto University, 2003 (in Japanese).
  115. [115] H. Iwabe, Y. Fuji, K. Saito, and T. Kishinami, “Study on Corner Cut by End Mill Analysis of Cutting Mechanism and New Cutting Method at Inside Corner,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, 99-5, pp. 841-846, 1989 (in Japanese).
  116. [116] M. D. Tsai, S. Takata, M. Inui, F. Kimura, and T. Sata, “Operation Planning Based on Cutting Process Models,” Annals of the CIRP, 40-1, pp. 95-98, 1991.
  117. [117] H. S. Choy and K. W. Chan, “A Corner-looping Based Tool Path for Pocket Milling,” Computer-Aided Design, 35, pp. 155-166, 2003.
  118. [118] H. C. Kim, S. G. Lee, and M. Y. Yang, “An Optimized Contour Parallel Tool Path for 2D Milling with Flat End Mill,” Int’l J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 31-5/6, 2006, pp. 567-573, 2005.
  119. [119] Volumill by Celeritive Technologies, Inc., www.celeritive.com
  120. [120] M. Otkur and I. Lazoglu, “Trochoidal milling,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 47-9, pp. 1324-1332, 2007.
  121. [121] S. Ibaraki, I. Yamaji, Y. Kakino, D. Inoue, and S. Nishida, “Tool path planning using trochoid cycles for hardened steel in die and mold manufacturing (1st report) – Tool path generation for trochoid cycles based on Voronoi diagram – ,” Proc. of the Int’l Conf. on Agile Manufacturing, pp. 435-442, 2003.
  122. [122] I. Yamaji, S. Ibaraki, Y. Kakino, and S. Nishida, “Tool path planning using trochoid cycles for hardened steel in die and mold manufacturing (2nd report) – Tool path planning to avoid an excessive tool load – ,” Proc. of the Int’l Conf. on Agile Manufacturing, pp. 443-450, 2003.
  123. [123] M. Rauch, E. Duc, and J.-Y. Hascoet, “Improving trochoidal tool paths generation and implementation using process constraints modelling,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 49-5, pp. 375-383, 2008.
  124. [124] Tools by Graphic Products, Inc., http://www.graphicproducts.co.jp/
  125. [125] J. A. Stori and P. K. Wright, “Constant Engagement Tool Path Generation for Convex Geometries,” J. of Manufacturing Systems, 19-3, pp. 172-184, 2000.
  126. [126] H. Wang, P. Jang, and J. A. Stori, “A Metric-Based Approach to Two-Dimensional (2D) Tool-Path Optimization for High-Speed Machining,” Trans. of the ASME, J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 127-1, pp. 33-48, 2005.
  127. [127] S. Ibaraki, D. Ikeda, I. Yamaji, A. Matsubara, Y. Kakino, and S. Nishida, “Constant Engagement Tool Path Generation for Twodimensional End Milling,” Proc. of 2004 Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, 2004.
  128. [128] M. S. Uddin, S. Ibaraki, A. Matsubara, S. Nishida, and Y. Kakino, “A Tool Path Modification Approach to Cutting Engagement Regulation for the Improvement of Machining Accuracy in 2D Milling with a Straight End Mill,” Trans. of the ASME, J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 129-6, pp. 1069-1079, 2007.
  129. [129] M. S. Uddin, S. Ibaraki, A. Matusubara, S. Nishida, and Y. Kakino, “Constant engagement tool path generation to enhance machining accuracy in end milling,” JSME Int’l J., 49-1, pp. 43-49, 2006.
  130. [130] H. P. Moon, “Equivolumetric offsets for 2D machining with constant material removal rate,” Computer Aided Geometric Design, 25-6, pp. 397-410, 2008.
  131. [131] H. P. Moon, “Equivolumetric offset surfaces,” Computer Aided Geometric Design, 26-1, pp. 17-36, 2009.
  132. [132] G. Pritschow, Y. Altintas, F. Jovane, Y. Koren, M. Mitsuishi, S. Takata, H. Brussel, M. Weck, and K. Yamazaki, “Open Controller Architecture – Past, Present and Future,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 50-2, pp. 463-470, 2001.
  133. [133] Y. Altintas and N. A. Erol, “Open Architecture Modular Tool Kit for Motion and Machining Process Control,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 47-1, pp. 295-300, 1998.
  134. [134] M. Mitsuishi, T. Nagao, H. Okabe, M. Hasiuchi, and K. Tanaka, “An open Architecture CNC CAD/CAM Machining System with Data Base Sharing and Mutual Information Feedback,” Annals of CIRP, 46-1, pp. 269-274, 1997.
  135. [135] M. Kaever, N. Brouer, M. Rehse, and M. Weck, “NC Integrated Process Monitoring and Control for Intelligent Autonomous Manufacturing Systems,” 29th CIRP Int’l Seminar onManufacturing Systems, pp. 69-74, 1997.
  136. [136] Organization for Machine Automation and Control (OMAC), www.omac.org
  137. [137] K. Yamazaki, “Autonomous Proficient CNC Controller for High- Performance Machine Tools Based on an Open Architecture Concept,” Annals of the CIRP, 46-1, pp. 275-278, 1997.
  138. [138] P. K. Wright and D. A. Dornfeld, “Agent-Based Manufacturing Systems,” Trans. of NAMRI/SME, 24, pp. 241-246, 1996.
  139. [139] T. Sato, Y. Kakino, A. Matsubara, S. Ibaraki, and H. Saraie, “Proposal of Extended System Framework of Intelligent Machine Tool,”2002 Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, 1, pp. 15-20, 2002.
  140. [140] H. Iwabe and K. Enta, “Tool Life of Small Diameter Ball End Mill for High Speed Milling of Hardened Steel – Effects of the Machining Method and the Tool Materials– ,” Int’l J. of Automation Technology, 2-6, pp. 425-430, 2008.
  141. [141] M. Rahman, A. S. Kumar, and J. R. S. Prakash, “Micro milling of pure copper,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, 116, pp. 39-43, 2001.
  142. [142] I. Tansel, O. Rodriguez, M. Trujillo, E. Paz, and W. Li, “Microend-milling – I. Wear and breakage,” Int’l J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 38, pp. 1419-1436, 1997.
  143. [143] C. J. Kim and J. R. Mayor, “A static model of chip formation in microscale milling,” Trans. of ASME, J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 126, pp. 710-718, 2004.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Dec. 10, 2019