High-Speed and Large-Amplitude Resonant Varifocal Mirror
Takashi Sasaki, Takuro Kamada, and Kazuhiro Hane
6-6-01 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan
We design, fabricate, and measure high-speed resonant varifocal mirrors for a reflective type focus scanning optical element. A circumference supported type mirror and a node supported type mirror with a 1 mm diameter driven by an electrostatic actuator are investigated. In the node supported type, a larger amplitude compared to that of the circumference supported type was obtained. The fabricated mirror could operate at approximately 450 kHz with axisymmetric deformation. The focal length was calculated to be ±28 mm at an applied total voltage amplitude of 150 V.
-  T. H. Chen, R. Fardel, and C. B. Arnold, “Ultrafast z-scanning for high-efficiency laser micro-machining,” Light: Science & Applications, Vol.7, No.4, 17181, 2018.
-  B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. D. V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun., Vol.232, No.16, pp. 123-128, 2004.
-  K. Nakazawa et al., “Confocal laser displacement sensor using a micro-machined varifocal mirror,” Appl. Opt., Vol.56, No.24, pp. 6911-6916, 2017.
-  S. Kang, E. Dotsenko, D. Amrhein, C. Theriault, and C. B. Arnold, “Ultra-high-speed variable focus optics for novel applications in advanced imaging,” Photonic Instrumentation Engineering V, Vol.10539, 1053902, 2018.
-  T. Shibaguchi and H. Funato, “Lead-Lanthanum Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT) Electrooptic Variable Focal-Length Lens with Stripe Electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol.31, No.9S, pp. 3196-3200, 1992.
-  A. Kaplan, N. Friedman, and N. Davidson, “Acousto-optic lens with very fast focus scanning,” Opt. Lett., Vol.26, No.14, pp. 1078-1080, 2001.
-  E. McLeod, A. B. Hopkins, and C. B. Arnold, “Multiscale Bessel beams generated by a tunable acoustic gradient index of refraction lens,” Opt. Lett., Vol.31, No.21, pp. 3155-3157, 2006.
-  P. A. Himmer and D. L. Dickensheets, “Dynamic behavior of high-speed silicon nitride deformable mirrors,” MOEMS Display and Imaging Systems II, Vol.5348, pp. 150-159, 2004.
-  P. A. Himmer, D. L. Dickensheets, and R. A. Friholm, “Micromachined silicon nitride deformable mirrors for focus control,” Opt. Lett., Vol.26, No.16, pp. 1280-1282, 2001.
-  U. M. Mescheder, C. Estan, G. Somogyi, and M. Freudenreich, “Distortion optimized focusing mirror device with large aperture,” Sens. Actuators A, Vol.130131, pp. 20-27, 2006.
-  Y. Shao, D. L. Dickensheets, and P. Himmer, “3-D MOEMS mirror for laser beam pointing and focus control,” IEEE J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 528-535, 2004.
-  R. Hokari and K. Hane, “Micro-mirror laser scanner combined with a varifocal mirror,” Microsyst. Technol., Vol.18, No.4, pp. 475-480, 2012.
-  T. Sasaki and K. Hane, “Initial deflection of silicon-on-insulator thin membrane micro-mirror and fabrication of varifocal mirror,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol.172, No.2, pp. 516-522, 2011.
-  T. Sasaki and K. Hane, “Varifocal Micromirror Integrated With Comb-Drive Scanner on Silicon-on-Insulator Wafer,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol.21, No.4, pp. 971-980, 2012.
-  T. Sasaki, D. Sato, K. Nakazawa, and K. Hane, “Basic Characteristics of Displacement-amplified Dynamic Varifocal Mirror using Mechanical Resonance,” IEEJ Trans. on Sensors and Micromachines, Vol.134, pp. 253-257, 2014.
-  K. Nakazawa et al., “Resonant Varifocal Micromirror with Piezoresistive Focus Sensor,” Micromachines, Vol.7, No.4, E57, 2016.
-  K. Nakazawa, T. Sasaki, H. Furuta, J. Kamiya, T. Kamiya, and K. Hane, “Varifocal Scanner Using Wafer Bonding,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 440-447, 2017.
-  S. S. Rao, “Mechanical Vibrations (5th Edition),” Prentice Hall, 2010.
-  G. Stemme, “Resonant silicon sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng., Vol.1, pp. 113-125, 1991.
-  R. N. Candler et al., “Impact of geometry on thermoelastic dissipation in micromechanical resonant beams,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol.15, No.4, pp. 927-934, 2006.
-  X. Zhou et al., “Investigation on the Quality Factor Limit of the (111) Silicon Based Disk Resonator,” Micromachines, Vol.9, No.1, E25, 2018.
-  Y. Sun and M. Saka, “Thermoelastic damping in micro-scale circular plate resonators,” J. of Sound and Vibration, Vol.329, No.3, pp. 328-337, 2010.
-  Z. Hao, A. Erbil, and F. Ayazi, “An analytical model for support loss in micromachined beam resonators with in-plane flexural vibrations,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol.109, No.1, pp. 156-164, 2003.
-  G. D. Cole, I. Wilson-Rae, K. Werbach, M. R. Vanner, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Phonon-tunnelling dissipation in mechanical resonators,” Nature Communications, Vol.2, p. 231, 2011.
-  A. W. Leissa, “Vibration of plate,” Nasa Science and Technical Publication, pp. 10-11, 1969.
-  T. Wu, T. Sasaki, M. Akiyama, and K. Hane, “Large-scale membrane transfer process: its application to single-crystal-silicon continuous membrane deformable mirror,” J. Micromech. Microeng., Vol.23, No.12, 125003, 2013.
-  Y. He, J. Marchetti, C. Gallegos, and F. Maseeh, “Accurate fully-coupled natural frequency shift of MEMS actuators due to voltage bias and other external forces,” Technical Digest, IEEE Int. MEMS, 99 Conf. 12th IEEE Int. Conf. on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, pp. 321-325, 1999.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.