Spherical and Non-Spherical Combined Two Degree-of-Freedom Rotational Parallel Mechanism for a Microsurgical Robotic System
Jumpei Arata*, Yoshiteru Kobayashi*, Ryu Nakadate**, Shinya Onogi***, Kazuo Kiguchi*, and Makoto Hashizume**
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University
744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
**Center for Advanced Medical Innovation, Kyushu University
3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
***Fukuoka Institute of Technology
3-30-1 Wajiro-higashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 811-0295, Japan
Microsurgery, often performed for anastomosis of small vessels and nerves, requires micro-manipulations of small tissues and thus requires highly specialized surgical skills. Robotic technology has great potential to assist with microsurgical treatments because of the high accuracy provided by robots; however, implementation remains challenging because the technical requirements of robotic surgery are far different from those in industry. One of the greatest challenges is that two surgical tools (e.g., tweezers) must be precisely and deftly moved around the surgical area in seven degrees of freedom (DOF) using one DOF to grasp each tool, and these tools are used in close proximity to each other. Additionally, high accuracy and rigidity at the tool tip are imperative for successful performance of the microsurgical procedure. In this study, we propose a new rotational two-DOF parallel mechanism that has the inherent advantages of a parallel mechanism, namely accuracy and rigidity, within a newly proposed spherical and non-spherical combined parallel structure to prevent collision of the two mechanisms in a dual-arm setup for microsurgery. The prototype was evaluated by performing a series of mechanical tests, and microsurgical suturing was performed by a microsurgical robotic system. The series of evaluations demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mechanism.
-  L. S. Mattos, D. G. Caldwell, G. Peretti, F. Mora, L, Guastini, and R. Cingolani, “Microsurgery robots: addressing the needs of high-precision surgical interventions,” Swiss. Med. Wkly., 2016 Oct 26;146:w14375, doi: 10.4414/smw.2016.14375, 2016.
-  M. Hoeckelmann, I. J. Rudas, P. Fiorini, F. Kirchner, and T. Haidegger, “Current Capabilities and Development Potential in Surgical Robotics,” Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst., Vol.12, Issue 5, doi: 10.5772/60133, 2015.
-  C. H. Kuo, J. S. Dai, and P. Dasgupta, “Kinematic design considerations for minimally invasive surgical robots: an overview,” Int. J. Med. Robot., Vol.8, No.2, pp. 127-145, 2012.
-  J. P. Merlet, “Parallel Robots Second Edition,” Springer, ISBN 1-4020-4132-2, 2006.
-  S. Aksungur and T. Koca, “Remote Center of Motion (RCM) Mechanisms for Surgical Operations,” Int. J. Applied Mathematic, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 119-126, 2015.
-  R. Baumann, W. Maeder, D. Clauser, and R. Clavel, “The Pantoscope: A Spherical Remote-Center-of-Motion Parallel Manipulator for Force Reflection,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 718-723, 1997.
-  J. Arata, K. Kiguchi, M. Hattori, M. Sakaguchi, R. Nakadate, S. Oguri, and M. Hashizume, “A Microsurgical Robotic System that Induces a Multisensory Illusion,” Int. J. Humanoid Robotics, Vol.13, No.4, 1650018, 2016.
-  R. Taylor, P. Jensen, L. Whitcomb, A. Barnes, R. Kumar, D. Stoianovici, P. Gupta, Z. Wang, E. de Juan, and L. Kavoussi, “A Steady Hand Robotic System for Microsurgical Augmentation,” Int. J. Robotics Research, Vol.18, No.12, pp. 1201-1210, 1999.
-  C. N. Riviere, W. T. Ang, and P. K. Khosla, “Towards Active Tremor Canceling in Handheld Microsurgical Instruments,” IEEE Trans. Robotics Automation, Vol.19, No.5, pp. 793-800, 2003.
-  H. Das, H. Zak, J. Johnson, J. Crouch, and D. Frambach, “Evaluation of a telerobotic system to assist surgeons in microsurgery,” Comp. Aid. Surg., Vol.4, No.1, pp. 5-25, 1999.
-  A. Morita, S. Sora, M. Mitsuishi, S. Warisawa, K. Surman, D. Asai, J. Arata, S. Baba, H. Takahashi, R. Mochizuki, and T. Kirino, “Microsurgical Robotic System for the Deep Surgical Field: Development of a Prototype and Feasibility Studies in Animal and Cadaveric Models,” J. Neurosurgery, Vol.103, No.2, pp. 320-327, 2005.
-  J. W. Motkoski, F. W. Yang, S. H. H. Lwu, and G. R. Sutherland, “Toward Robot-Assisted Neurosurgical Lasers,” IEEE Trans. Biomedical Eng., Vol.60, No.4, pp. 892-898, 2013.
-  R. Cau, “Design and realization of a master-slave system for reconstructive microsurgery,” Dissertation, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2014.
-  D. Stewart, “A platform with six degrees of freedom,” Proc. Inst. Mechanical Eng., Vol.180, pp. 371-386, 1965.
-  C. M. Gosselin and J. F. Hamel, “The agile eye: a high-performance three-degree-of-freedom camera-orienting device,” Proc. Int. Conf. Robotics Automation, pp. 781-786, 1994.
-  C. M. Gosselin, E. St-Pierre, and M. Gagné, “On the Development of the Agile Eye: Mechanical Design, Control Issues and Experimentation,” IEEE Robotics Automation Magazine, Vol.3, No.4, pp. 29-37, 1996.
-  R. D. Gregorio, “A new family of spherical parallel manipulators,” Robotica, Vol.20, No.4, pp. 353-358, 2002.
-  T. Li and S. Payandeh, “Design of spherical parallel mechanisms for application to laparoscopic surgery,” Robotica, Vol.20, No.2, pp. 133-138, 2002.
-  A. Degirmenci, F. L. Hammond, J. B. Gafford, C. J. Walsh, R. J. Wood, and R. D. Howe, “Design and control of a parallel linkage wrist for robotic microsurgery,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), pp. 222-228, 2015.
-  T. Fukuda, M. Fujiyoshi, F. Arai, and H. Matsuura, “Position and Force Control of Micromanipulator with Six Degrees of Freedom Using Piezoelectric Actuators,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.3, No.1, pp. 34-40, 1991.
-  S. Leguay-Durand and C. Reboulet, “Optimal design of a redundant spherical parallel manipulator,” Robotica, Vol.15, No.4, pp. 399-405, 1997.
-  M. Karouia and J. M. Hervé, “Asymmetrical 3-dof spherical parallel mechanisms,” European J. Mechanics A/Solids, Vol.24, No.1, pp. 47-57, 2005.
-  F. L. Hammond III, S. G. Talbot, R. J. Wood, and R. D. Howe, “Measurement System for the Characterization of Micro Manipulation Motion and Force,” J. Med. Devices, Vol.7, No.3, 030940, 2013.
-  J. Arata, M. Hattori, S. Ichikawa, and M. Sakaguchi, “Robotically Enhanced Rubber Hand Illusion,” IEEE Trans. on Haptics, Vol.7, No.4, pp. 526-532, 2014.
-  M. Ouerfelli and V. Kumar, “Optimization of a Spherical Five-Bar Parallel Drive Linkage,” J. Mech. Des., Vol.116, No.1, pp. 166-173, 1994.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.