JRM Vol.28 No.3 pp. 304-313
doi: 10.20965/jrm.2016.p0304


Reduced-Order Observer Based Sliding Mode Control for a Quad-Rotor Helicopter

Reesa Akbar*,**, Bambang Sumantri*,**, Hitoshi Katayama***, Shigenori Sano*, and Naoki Uchiyama*

*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology
1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan

**Department of Electrical Engineering, Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya
Raya ITS, Keputih Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia

***Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shizuoka University
3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Japan

August 28, 2015
March 22, 2016
June 20, 2016
reduced-order observer, quad-rotor helicopter, sampler data system, sliding mode controller, tracking control
The reduced-order observer design we present estimates the velocity states of a quadrotor helicopter, or quadcopter, based on sampled measurements of position and attitude states. This observer is based on the forward-differentiation Euler model. The observer is robust enough against observation noise that the gain of a closed-loop controller is high enough to improve control performance. A sliding-mode controller stabilizes and implements quadcopter tracking control effectively, as is verified experimentally when compared to a conventional backward-difference method.
Quadcopter for repeated control verification

Quadcopter for repeated control verification

Cite this article as:
R. Akbar, B. Sumantri, H. Katayama, S. Sano, and N. Uchiyama, “Reduced-Order Observer Based Sliding Mode Control for a Quad-Rotor Helicopter,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.28 No.3, pp. 304-313, 2016.
Data files:
  1. [1] A. Mokhtari and A. Benallegue, “Dynamic feedback controller of Euler angles and wind parameters estimation for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle,” IEEE-Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2359-2366, 2004.
  2. [2] M. Ichikawa, H. Yamada, and J. Takeuchi, “Flying Robot with Biologically Inspired Vision,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.13, No.6, pp. 621-624, 2001.
  3. [3] H. Nakanishi, H. Hashimoto, N. Hosokawa, K. Inoue, and A. Sato, “Autonomous Flight Control System for Intelligent Aero-robot for Disaster Prevention,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.15, No.5, pp. 491-500, 2003.
  4. [4] A. Mokhtari, A. Benallegue, and A. Belaidi, “Polynomial Linear Quadratic Gaussian and Sliding Mode Observer for a Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.17, No.4, pp. 483-495, 2005.
  5. [5] H. Nakanishi, S. Kanata, T. Sawaragi, and Y. Horiguchi, “Methods to Estimate Magnetic Declination for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.20, No.4, pp. 541-549, 2008.
  6. [6] D. Pebrianti, W. Wang, D. Iwakura, Y. Song, and K. Nonami, “Sliding Mode Controller for Stereo Vision Based Autonomous Flight of Quad-Rotor M,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.23, No.1, pp. 137-148, 2011.
  7. [7] M. F. B. Abas, D. Pebrianti, S. A. M. Ali, D. Iwakura, Y. Song, K. Nonami, and D. Fujiwara, “Circular Leader-Follower Formation Control of Quad-Rotor Aerial Vehicles,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.25, No.1, pp. 60-71, 2013.
  8. [8] D. Iwakura and K. Nonami, “Indoor Localization of Flying Robot by Means of Infrared Sensors,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.25, No.1, pp. 201-210, 2013.
  9. [9] R. M. Philbrick and M. B. Colton, “Effects of Haptic and 3D Audio Feedback on Operator Performance and Workload for Quadrotor UAVs in Indoor Environments,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.5, pp. 580-591, 2014.
  10. [10] V. Rejon and E. A. Bricaire, “Discrete-time dynamic feedback linearization of a VTOL using observed states,” 17th IFAC-World Congress, Vol.17, pp. 1753-1759, 2008.
  11. [11] A. R. Shabayek, C. Demonceaux, O. Morel, and D. Fofi, “Vision based UAV attitude estimation: progress and insights,” Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Vol.65, pp. 295-308, 2011.
  12. [12] S. Azrad, F. Kendoul, and K. Nonami, “Visual servoing of quadrotor micro-air vehicle using color-based tracking algorithm,” System Design and Dynamics, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 255-268, 2010.
  13. [13] D. Cabecinhas, S. Bras, C. Silvestre, P. Oliveira, and R. Cunha, “Integrated solution to quadrotor stabilization and attitude estimation using a pan and tilt camera,” IEEE 51st Annual Conf. on Decision and Control, pp. 3151-3156, 2012.
  14. [14] C. Schlaile, O. Meister, N. Frietsch, C. Kebler, J. Wendel, and G. F. Trommer, “Using natural features for vision based navigation of an indoor-VTOL MAV,” Aerospace Science and Technology, Vol.13, pp. 349-357, 2009.
  15. [15] Z. Yu, L. Tang, and K. Nonami, “Experiment in 3D vision based hovering control of an autonomous helicopter,” System Design and Dynamics, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 660-671, 2007.
  16. [16] M. Achtelik, T. Zhang, K. Kuhnlenz, and M. Buss, “Visual tracking and control of a quadcopter using a stereo camera system and inertial sensors,” Int. Conf. on Mechatronics and Automation, pp. 2863-2869, 2009.
  17. [17] E. Altug, J. P. Ostrowski, and C. J. Taylor, “Control of a quadrotor helicopter using dual camera visual feedback,” Robotics Research, Vol.24, No.5, pp. 329-341, 2005.
  18. [18] L. Zhang, T. Zhang, H. Wu, A. Borst, and K. Kuhnlenz, “Visual flight control of a quadrotor using bioinspired motion detector,” Navigation and Observation, pp. 1-9, 2012.
  19. [19] M. Guisser and H. Medromi, “A high gain observer and sliding mode controller for an autonomous quadrotor helicopter,” Intelligent Control and Systems, Vol.14, No.3, pp. 204-212, 2009.
  20. [20] A. Benallegue, A. Mokhtari, and L. Fridman, “High-order sliding-mode observer for a quadrotor UAV,” Robust and Nonlinear Control, Vol.18, Issues 4-5, pp. 427-440, 2008.
  21. [21] H. Bouadi and M. Tadjine, “Nonlinear observer design and sliding mode control of four rotors helicopter,” Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol.3, No.6, pp. 333-338, 2007.
  22. [22] A. F. De Loza, H. Rios, and A. Rosales, “Robust regulation for a 3-DOF helicopter via sliding-mode observation and identification,” Franklin Institute, Vol.349, pp. 700-718, 2012.
  23. [23] A. Mokhtari, N. K. M’Sirdi, K. Meghriche, and A. Belaidi, “Feedback linearization and linear observer for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle,” Advanced Robotics, Vol.20, Issue 1, pp. 71-91, 2006.
  24. [24] S. Suzuki, T. Ishii, N. Okada, K. Iizuka, and T. Kawamura, “Autonomous navigation, guidance and control of small electric helicopter,” Int. J. of Advanced Robotic System, Vol.10, No.54, 2013.
  25. [25] T. Chen and B. A. Francis, “Optimal Sampled-Data Control Systems,” Springer, 1995.
  26. [26] D. Nesic, A. R. Teel, and P. V. Kokotovic, “Sufficient conditions for stabilization of sampled-data nonlinear systems via discrete-time approximations,” Systems and Control Letters, Vol.38, No.4, pp. 259-270, 1999.
  27. [27] H. Katayama and H. Aoki, “Reduced-order observers for nonlinear sampled-data systems with application to marine systems,” IEEE 52nd Annual Conf. on Decision and Control, pp. 5072-5077, 2013.
  28. [28] B. Sumantri, N. Uchiyama, and S. Sano, “Least square based sliding mode control for a quad-rotor helicopter,” IEEE/SICE Int. Symposium on System Integration, pp. 324-328, 2013.
  29. [29] B. Sumantri, N. Uchiyama, and S. Sano, “Least square based sliding mode control for a quad-rotor helicopter and energy saving by chattering reduction,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol.66-67, No.8, pp. 769-784, 2016.
  30. [30] J. J. E. Slotine and W. Li, “Applied Nonlinear Control,” Prentice Hall, 1991.
  31. [31] K. Nonaka and H. Sugizaki, “Integral sliding mode altitude control for a small model helicopter with ground effect compensation,” American Control Conf (ACC), pp. 202-207, 2011.
  32. [32] H. K. Khalil, “Nonlinear Systems,” Prentice Hall, 2002.
  33. [33] H. Katayama and H. Aoki, “Straight-line trajectory tracking control for sampled-data underactuated ships,” IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technology, Vol.22, No.4, pp. 1638-1645, 2014.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Sep. 21, 2023