Using a Low-Cost Onboard Camera for Sliding Mode Control of a Mobile Robot in Slippery Environments
Ernesto Rivas*, Koutaro Komagome*, Kazuhisa Mitobe*, and Genci Capi**
*Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Yamagata University
4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510, Japan
**Department of Electric and Electronic Systems Engineering, University of Toyama
3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japan
Robot motion on sliding modeThis paper reports on a simple sliding mode controller that is based on a low-cost camera and being developed for application to a compact, mobile snow-removal robot. We adopt a sliding mode controller for the lightweight, tracked robot to be used under slippery conditions. Assuming the snow-removal task can be carried out by following straight paths, this paper focuses on the path control problem by using a low-cost camera and a simple marker placed on the work site. The transient motion control during the converging state to the line paths is discussed in particular. In our snow-removal application, robustness against disturbances due to snow pressure or track slips is important. In addition, rotation should not be excessive during the transient response so that the robot does not lose sight of the marker. The sliding mode controller is a useful solution, filling these requirements. The problem of robustness in the face of track slip is analyzed theoretically, based on a model with parameter error and input disturbance. The expected tracking accuracy is evaluated in terms of the disturbance values and feedback gains. Experiments are carried out on a slippery surface of polystyrene beads. Robustness against disturbance is tested on an inclined surface.
-  K. Mitobe, E. Rivas, K. Hasegawa, R. Kasamatsu, S. Nakajima, and H. Ono, “Development of the Snow Dragging Mechanism for an Autonomous Snow Eater Robot,” IEEE/SICE Int. Symposium on System Integration, 2010.
-  E. Rivas and K. Mitobe, “Development of a Navigation System for The SnowEater Robot,” IEEE/SICE Int. Symposium on System Integration, 2012.
-  J. H. Lever, D. Denton, G. E. Phetteplace, S. D. Wood, and S. A. Shoop, “Mobility of a lightweight tracked robot over deep snow,” J. of Terramechanics Vol.43, pp. 527-551, 2006.
-  J. H. Lever, S. A. Shoop, and R. I. Bernhard, “Design of lightweight robots for over-snow mobility,” J. of Terramechanics, Vol.46, pp. 67-74, 2009.
-  ““Yuki-Taro” the autonomous snowplow, Report on the Prototype Robot Exhibition EXPO 2005 AICHI,” Niigata Industrial Creation Organization, 2005 (in Japanese).
-  T. Sato, T. Makino, K. Naruse, H. Yokoi, and Y. Kakazu, “A Study on Development of the Autonomous Snowplow with Remote Control,” presented at RoboMec 2003 (in Japanese).
-  J. Y. Wong, “Theory of ground vehicles,” 4th Edition, Jhon Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chapter 6, Steering of tracked vehiclesi, pp. 419-449, 2008.
-  J. Y. Wong and W. Huang, ““Wheels vs. Tracks”– A fundamental evaluation from the traction perspective,” J. of Terramechanics, Vol.43, pp. 27-42, 2006.
-  C. Canudas, B. Siciliano, and G. Bastin, “Theory of Robot Control. 1st Edition,” Chapter 7, Modelling and structural properties, pp. 278, Chapter 9, Nonlinear feedback control, pp. 331-341, 1997.
-  D. Pebrianti, W. Wang, D. Iwakura, Y. Song, and K. Nonami, “Sliding Mode Controller for Stereo Vision Based Autonomous Flight of Quad-Rotor MAV,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.23, No.1, 2011.
-  M. F. B. Abas, D. Pebrianti, S. A. M. Ali, D. Iwakura, Y. Song, K. Nonami, and D. Fujiwara, “Circular Leader-Follower Formation Control of Quad-Rotor Aerial Vehicles,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.25, No.1, 2013.
-  A. Mokhtari, A. Benallegue, and A. Belaidi, “Polynomial Linear Quadratic Gaussian and Sliding Mode Observer for a Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.17, No.4, 2005.
-  C. Wit, H. Khennouf, C. Samson, and O. Sordalen, “Nonlinear control design for mobile robots,” Recent Trends in Mobile Robots, Chapter 5, World Scientific series in robotics and automated systems, World Scientific, 1993.
-  J. Guldner and V. I. Utkin, “Stabilization of nonholonomic mobile robots using LyapuNo.functions for navigation and sliding mode control,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Decision Contr., pp. 2967-2972, 1994.
-  J. M. Yang and J. H. Kim, “Sliding Mode Control for Trajectory Tracking of Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robots,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.15, No.3, 1999.
-  M. L. Corradini, T. Leo, and G. Orlando, “Experimental Testing of a Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Controller for Trajectory Tracking of a Wheeled Mobile Robot in the Presence of Skidding Effects,” J. of Robotic Systems Vol.19, No.3, pp. 177-188, 2002.
-  R. Solea, A. Filipescu, and G. Stamatescu, “Sliding-mode real-time mobile platform control in the presence of uncertainties,” Joint 48th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conf., 2009.
-  M. Spong and M. Vidyasagar, “Robot Dynamics and Control,” Wiley, 1989.
-  H. Kato and M. Billinghurst, “Marker tracking and HMD calibration for a video-based augmented reality conferencing system,” Proc. 2nd IEEE and ACM Int. Workshop on Augmented Reality, 1999.
-  E. Rivas, K. Komagome, K. Mitobe, and G. Capi, “Image-Based Navigation for the SnowEater Robot Using a Low-Resolution USB Camera,” Robotics, Vol.4, pp. 120-140, 2015.
-  J. Slotine and W. Li, “Applied Nonlinear Control,” Prentice Hall, 1991.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.