Fabrication of 3D Photoresist Structure for Artificial Capillary Blood Vessel
Azrena Abu Bakar*, Masahiro Nakajima*, Chengzhi Hu*,
Hirotaka Tajima*, Shoichi Maruyama**, and Toshio Fukuda*,***
*Department of Micro-Nano Systems Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
**Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
***Center For Micro-Nano Mechatronics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
We propose a new method for fabricating artificial capillaries using direct laser writing. IP-L and Ormocomp are tested as photoresist materials. Three different microstructures were fabricated from IP-L: a porous hollow pipe microstructure, a 3 × 3 array of twig microstructures, and an array of hollow twig microstructures. Porous hollow pipe microstructures of different diameters were fabricated from Ormocomp, a biocompatible photoresist. These designs resemble capillaries. IP-L and Ormocomp fabrication parameters, such as laser power, numerical aperture, fabrication time, and fabrication model, are compared. Fabrication time is related to the fabrication model chosen during the direct laser writing process. Combined model fabrication is recommended over solid model fabrication because it results in shorter fabrication time and a more robust microstructure that is more likely to maintain its shape on the substrate after development. Laser power is another important parameter controlling fabrication. IP-L fabrication withstands up to 20 mW of laser power, unlike Ormocomp microstructures, which require laser power of less than 18 mW. IP-L and Ormocomp photoresist stiffness is also evaluated. The fabrication of artificial capillaries is important in developing vascular simulators that enable researchers to understand, for example, blood pressure in the kidney glomerulus.
Hirotaka Tajima, Shoichi Maruyama, and Toshio Fukuda, “Fabrication of 3D Photoresist Structure for Artificial Capillary Blood Vessel,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.25, No.4, pp. 673-681, 2013.
-  K. Kunkler, “The role of medical simulation: an overview,” The Int. J. of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, Vol.2, pp. 203-210, 2006.
-  K. Sugiu et al., “Artificial Cerebral Aneurysm Model for Medical Testing, Training, and Research,” Neurologia medico-chirurgica, Vol.43, pp. 69-73, 2003.
-  S. Ikeda et al., “An in vitro patient-tailored model of human cerebral artery for simulating endovascular intervention,” Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (Miccai 2005), Pt. 1, Vol.3749, J. S. Duncan and G. Gerig (Eds.), Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin, pp. 925-932, 2005.
-  C. Henmi et al., “New approaches for tissue engineering: three dimensional cell patterning using inkjet technology,” Inflammation and Regeneration, Vol.28, pp. 36-40, 2008.
-  T. Uchida et al., “Development of biodegradable scaffolds based on patient-specific arterial configuration,” J. of Biotechnology, Vol.133, pp. 213-218, 2008.
-  A. Kikuchi and T. Okano, “Nanostructured designs of biomedical materials: applications of cell sheet engineering to functional regenerative tissues and organs,” J. of Controlled Release, Vol.101, pp. 69-84, 2005.
-  C. Ferris et al., “Biofabrication: an overview of the approaches used for printing of living cells,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, pp. 1-16, 2013.
-  J. Grace N. Guanzon, S. Lee, J. R. Berg et al., “Trends in Tissue Engineering for Blood Vessels,” J. of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Vol.2012, Article ID 956345, p. 14, 2012.
-  F. Klein et al., “Two-Component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-Dimensional Cell Culture,” Advanced Materials, Vol.23, pp. 1341-1345, 2011.
-  A. Pozzi, “Diseased renal glomeruli are getting soft. Focus on “Biophysical properties of normal and diseased renal glomeruli,” American J. of Physiology – Cell Physiology, Vol.300, pp. C394-C396, 2011.
-  R. E. Schmieder et al., “Glomerular hyperfiltration during sympathetic nervous system activation in early essential hypertension,” J. of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol.8, pp. 893-900, 1997.
-  L. C. Paul, “Glomerular hypertension – an under-appreciated aspect of chronic rejection,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Vol.16, pp. 213-215, 2001.
-  P. Palatini, “Glomerular hyperfiltration: a marker of early renal damage in pre-diabetes and pre-hypertension,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2012.
-  Y. Li et al., “Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index Derived From 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring,” Hypertension, Vol.47, pp. 359-364, March 1, 2006.
-  R. A. Gismondi, M. F. Neves, W. Oigman, and R. Bregman, “Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index Is Higher in Hypertensive Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease,” Int. J. of Hypertension, Vol.2012, p. 6, 2012.
-  J. W. Booth and C. J. Lumsden, “Explaining glomerular pores with fiber matrices. A visualization study based on computer modeling,” Biophysical J., Vol.64, pp. 1727-1734, 1993.
-  C. Schizas and D. Karalekas, “Mechanical characteristics of an Ormocomp ® biocompatible hybrid photopolymer,” J. of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol.4, pp. 99-106, 2011.
-  H. M. Wyss et al., “Biophysical properties of normal and diseased renal glomeruli,” American J. of Physiology – Cell Physiology, Vol.300, pp. C397-C405, March 1, 2011.
- [a] Nanoscribe GmbH,
http://www.nanoscribe.de/ [Accessed April 28, 2012]
- [b] http://www.nanoscribe.de/en/products/ip-photoresists [Accessed May 12, 2012]
Supporting Online Materials:
Copyright© 2013 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.