JRM Vol.24 No.4 pp. 602-611
doi: 10.20965/jrm.2012.p0602


A Neural Adaptive Controller in Flapping Flight

Bo Cheng and Xinyan Deng

School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2088, USA

February 2, 2012
May 2, 2012
August 20, 2012
flapping flight, neural network, attitude control, Lyapunov stability, filtered error
In this paper, we propose a neural adaptive controller for attitude control in a flapping-wing insect model. The model is nonlinear and subjected to periodic force/torque generated by nominal wing kinematics. Two sets of model parameters are obtained from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the honey bee Apis mellifera. Attitude control is achieved by modifying the wing kinematics on a stroke-by-stroke basis. The controller is based on filtered-error with neural network models approximating system nonlinearities. Lyapunov-based stability analysis shows the asymptotic convergence of system outputs. We present simulation results for angular position stabilization and trajectory tracking. Trajectory tracking is illustrated by two cases: saccadic turning and sinusoidal variation in the yaw angle. The proposed controller successfully regulates flight orientation – roll, pitch and yaw angles – by generating desired torque resulting from tuning parameterized wing motion. Results furthermore show similarities between simulated and observed turning from real insects, suggesting some inherent properties in insect flight dynamics and control. The proposed controller has potential applications in future flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs).
Cite this article as:
B. Cheng and X. Deng, “A Neural Adaptive Controller in Flapping Flight,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.24 No.4, pp. 602-611, 2012.
Data files:
  1. [1] T. S. Collett and M. F. Land, “Visual control of flight behaviour in the hoverfly Syritta pipiens L,” J. of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology, Vol.99, pp. 1-66, 1975.
  2. [2] S. N. Fry, R. Sayaman, and M. H. Dickinson, “The aerodynamics of free-flight maneuvers in Drosophila,” Science, Vol.300, pp. 495-498, 2003.
  3. [3] S. N. Fry, R. Sayaman, and M. H. Dickinson, “The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila,” J. of Experimental Biology, Vol.208, pp. 2303-2318, 2005.
  4. [4] G. K. Taylor and A. L. R. Thomas, “Dynamic flight stability in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria,” J. of Experimental Biology, Vol.206, pp. 2803-2829, 2003.
  5. [5] J. A. Bender and M. H. Dickinson, “Comparison of visual and haltere-mediated feedback in the control of body saccades in Drosophila melanogaster,” J. of Experimental Biology, Vol.209, pp. 4597-4606, 2006.
  6. [6] M. H. Dickinson, “The initiation and control of rapid flight maneuvers in fruit flies,” Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol.45, pp. 274-281, 2005.
  7. [7] R. Dudley, “The biomechanics of insect flight,” Princeton University Press, 2000.
  8. [8] M. H. Dickinson, F. O. Lehmann, and S. P. Sane, “Wing rotation and the aerodynamic basis of insect flight,” Science, Vol.284, pp. 1954-1960, 1999.
  9. [9] S. P. Sane and M. H. Dickinson, “The aerodynamic effects of wing rotation and a revised quasi-steady model of flapping flight,” J. of Experimental Biology, Vol.205, pp. 1087-1096, 2002.
  10. [10] X. Y. Deng, L. Schenato, and S. S. Sastry, “Flapping flight for biomimetic robotic insects: Part II – Flight control design,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics, Vol.22, pp. 789-803, 2006.
  11. [11] X. Y. Deng, L. Schenato, W. C. Wu, and S. S. Sastry, “Flapping flight for biomimetic robotic insects: Part I – System modeling,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics, Vol.22, pp. 776-788, 2006.
  12. [12] W. B. Dickson, A. D. Straw, C. Poelma, and M. H. Dickinson, “An Integrative Model of Insect Flight Control,” AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 2006.
  13. [13] B. Cheng and X. Deng, “Mathematical Modeling of Near-hover Insect Flight Dynamics,” ASME DSCC Dynamic Systems and Control Conf., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010.
  14. [14] B. Cheng and X. Deng, “Translational and Rotational Damping of Flapping Flight and Its Dynamics and Stability at Hovering,” IEEE, Trans. on Robotics, Vol.27, 2011.
  15. [15] B. Cheng and X. Deng, “Near-Hover Dynamics and Attitude Stabilization of an Insect Model,” in American Control Conf., Baltimore 2010.
  16. [16] B. Cheng, X. Deng, and T. L. Hedrick, “TheMechanics and Control of Pitching Manoeuvres in a Freely Flying Hawkmoth (Manduca Sexta),” J. of Experiment Biology, Vol.214, pp. 4092-4106, 2011.
  17. [17] A. J. Bergou, L. Ristroph, J. Guckenheimer, I. Cohen, and Z. J. Wang, “Fruit Flies Modulate Passive Wing Pitching to Generate In-Flight Turns,” Physical Review Letters, Vol.104, p. 148101, 2010.
  18. [18] M. Sun and J. K. Wang, “Flight stabilization control of a hovering model insect,” J. of Experimental Biology, Vol.210, pp. 2714-2722, 2007.
  19. [19] F. L. Lewis, S. Jagannathan, and A. Yesildirek, “Neural network control of robot manipulators and nonlinear systems,” Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, 1999.
  20. [20] S. Haykin, “Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation,” Macmillan College Publishing Company, 1994.
  21. [21] L. Schenato, X. Deng,W. C.Wu, and S. Sastry, “Virtual insect flight simulator (VIFS): a software testbed for insect flight,” Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.4, pp. 3885-3892, 2001.
  22. [22] R. M. Murray, Z. Li, and S. S. Sastry, “A Mathematical Introduction to Robotic Manipulation,” CRC, 1994.
  23. [23] S. P. Sane and M. H. Dickinson, “The control of flight force by a flapping wing: lift and drag production,” J. of Experimental Biology, Vol.204, pp. 2607-2626, 2001.
  24. [24] G. K. Taylor, “Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control,” Biological Reviews, Vol.76, pp. 449-471, 2001.
  25. [25] S. Mao and X. Yan, “Dynamic flight stability of a hovering bumblebee,” J. of Experimental Biology, Vol.208, pp. 447-459, 2005.
  26. [26] X. Deng, L. Schenato, and S. Sastry, “Model Identification and Attitude Control for aMicromechanical Flying Insect Including Thorax and Sensor Models” Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics & Automation, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 1152-1157, 2003.
  27. [27] X. Deng, L. Schenato, and S. Sastry, “Model Identification and Attitude Control Scheme for a Micromechanical Flying Insect,” Seventh Int. Conf. on Control, Automation, Robotics And Vision (ICARCV ’02), Singapore, pp. 1007-1012, 2002.
  28. [28] R. Dudley and C. P. Ellington, “Mechanics of Forward Flight in Bumblebees: I. Kinematics and Morphology,” J. of Experimental Biology Vol.148, pp. 19-52, 1990.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on May. 28, 2024