AutonomousWalking over Obstacles by Means of LRF for Hexapod Robot COMET-IV
Mohd Razali Daud* and Kenzo Nonami**
*Department of Artificial System Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
**Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
This paper presents an autonomous navigation system for a hydraulically driven hexapod robot (COMETIV) based on point cloud data acquired using a rotating Laser Range Finder (LRF). The size of the robot would prohibit its movement in a stochastic terrain environment if we only consider letting it avoid obstacles. However, the robot has a unique ability to walk over obstacles. We thus proposed the so-called Grid-based Walking Trajectory for Legged Robot (GWTLR) method. The method is developed on the basis of the geometric representation of a stochastic terrain in terms of grid cell characteristics. We also introduced the “Grid-cell model for COMET-IV” to assess the characteristics of the grid cells and to determine whether each of the cells is traversable or not. Finally, the shortest safe walking trajectory is generated using a search algorithm, A*. The performance of the proposed method is verified by the experimental results of the successful determination of a walking trajectory path and by completely walking over obstacles in various arrangements.
-  K. Nonami et al., “Development and Control of Mine Detection Robot COMET-II and COMET-III,” JSME Int. J., Series C, Vol.46, No.3, pp. 881-890, 2003.
-  S. Hirose, H. Kikuchi, and Y. Umetani, “The Standard Circular Gait of the QuadrupedWalking Vehicle,” J. of Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.2, No.6, pp. 41-52, 1984.
-  Y. Harada et al., “Development of Hydraulically Actuated Hexapod Robot COMET-IV – The 4th Report: Walking in Outdoor Uneven Terrain by Positional Control,” Proc. of Robotics Society of Japan, 2G24, 2007.
-  T. Collins, J. J. Collins, and C. Ryan, “Occupancy Grid Mapping: An Empirical Evaluation,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Control and Automation, pp. 1-7, 2007.
-  T. Suzuki, Y. Amano, T. Hashizume, and S. Suzuki, “3D Terrain Reconstruction by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using SIFT-Based Monocular SLAM,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.23, No.2, pp. 292-301, 2011.
-  C. Ye, “Navigating a Mobile Robot by a Traversability Field Histogram,” IEEE Trans. on System, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B, Vol.37, No.2, pp. 361-372, 2007.
-  T. Doi et al., “Development of Quadruped Walking Robot TITAN XI for Steep Slopes – Slope Map Generation and Map Information Application,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.18, No.3, pp. 318-324, 2006.
-  D. Pebrianti, W. Wang, Y. Song, D. Iwakura, W. Wang, and K. Nonami, “Sliding Mode Controller for Stereo Vision Based Autonomous Flight of Quad-Rotor MAV,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.23, No.1, pp. 138-148, 2011.
-  P. Moghadam, W. S.Wijesoma, and D. J. Feng, “Improve Path Planning and Mapping Based on Stereo Vision and Lidar,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Control and Automation, pp. 384-389, 2008.
-  H. Moravec and A. Elfes, “High Resolution Maps fromWide Angle Sonar,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, 1985.
-  O. Özışık and S. Yavuz, “An Occupancy Grid Based SLAM Method,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications, pp. 117-119, 2008.
-  S. Brechtel, T. Gindele, and R. Dillmann, “Recursive Important Sampling for Efficient Grid-Based Occupancy Filtering in Dynamic Environments,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications, pp. 3932-3938, 2010.
-  C. Cheng and Y. Cheng, “Research on Map Building by Mobile Robots,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent Information Application, pp. 673-677, 2008.
-  P. Hart, N. Nilsson, and B. Rafael, “A Formal Basis for the Heuristic Determination of Minimum Cost Paths,” IEEE Trans. on Systems Science and Cybernatics, Vol.4, pp. 100-107, 1968.
-  K. Futagami, Y. Harada, M. Oku et al., “Real Time Navigation and Control of Hydraulically Actuated Hexapod Robot COMETIV,” JSME Int. Conf. on Motion and Vibration Control, 2008.
-  H. Ohroku, A. Irawan, and K. Nonami, “A 3D Simulator modeling for Hydraulic-drive Hexapod walking Robot using 3D Geometric Technique with distributed Numerical Model,” ICGST-ARAS Journal, Vol.9, Issue 1, 2009.
Copyright© 2012 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.