PDAC-Based 3-D Biped Walking Adapted to Rough Terrain Environment
Tadayoshi Aoyama*, Kosuke Sekiyama*,
Yasuhisa Hasegawa**, and Toshio Fukuda*
*Department of Micro-Nano Systems Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
**Department Intelligent Interaction Technologies, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tenodai, Tsukuba 305-8573, Japan
This paper deals with the 3-D biped walking of a humanoid type robot over rough terrain. We previously proposed efficient 3-D biped walking control using Passive Dynamic Autonomous Control (PDAC) based on the assumption of point-contact and virtual holonomic constraint of robot joints. Walking adaptability has not, however, been analyzed. We thus analyze the environmental adaptability of PDAC-based walking method in this paper. The robot is modeled as a variable-length 3-D inverted pendulum whose dynamics is modeled as a 2-D autonomous system by applying PDAC. We analyze the stability of the 2-D autonomous system using a Poincaré map and derive the stable range of uneven height over rough terrain. We then experimentally validate 3-D biped walking on unknown rough terrain using our humanoid type robot, Gorilla Robot III.
-  K. Hirai, M. Hirose, Y. Haikawa, and T. Takenaka, “The Development of Honda Humanoid Robot,” In Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1321-1326, 1998.
-  K. Kaneko, F. Kanehiro, M. Morisawa, K. Miura, S. Nakaoka, and S. Kajita, “Cybernetic Human HRP-4C,” In Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Humanoid Robots, pp. 7-14, 2009.
-  K. Kaneko, K. Harada, F. Kanehiro, G. Miyamori, and K. Akachi, “Humanoid Robot HRP-3,” In Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2471-2478, 2008.
-  M. Vukobratovic and B. Borovac, “ZERO-MOMENT POINT – THIRTY FIVE YEARS OF ITS LIFE,” Int. J. of Humanoid Robotics, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 157-173, 2004.
-  S. Kajita, M. Morisawa, K. Miura, S. Nakaoka, K. Harada, K. Kaneko, F. Kanehiro, and K. Yokoi, “Biped Walking Stabilization Based on Linear Inverted Pendulum Tracking,” In Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 4489-4496, 2010.
-  K. Nishiwaki and S. Kagami, “Strategies for Adjusting the ZMP Reference Trajectory for Maintaining Balance in Humanoid Walking,” In Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 4230-4236, 2010.
-  S. Collins, A. Ruina, R. Tedrake, and M. Wisse, “Efficient Bipedal Robots Based on Passive-Dynamic Walkers,” Science, Vol.307, pp. 1082-1085, 2005.
-  S. Kajita, T. Yamaura, and A. Kobayashi, “Dynamic walking control of a biped robot along a potential energy conserving orbit,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 431-438, 1992.
-  J. Nakanishi, J. Morimoto, G. Endo, G. Cheng, S. Schaal, and M. Kawato, “Learning from demonstration and adaptation of biped locomotion,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol.47, pp. 79-91, 2004.
-  A. Goswami, B. Espiau, and A. Keramane, “Limit cycles in a passive compass gait biped and passivity-mimicking control laws,” Autonomous Robots, Vol.4, pp. 274-286, 1997.
-  J. W. Grizzle, G. Abba, and F. Plestan, “Asymptotically Stable Walking for Biped Robots: Analysis via Systems with Impulse Effects,” IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 51-64, 2001.
-  E. R. Westervelt, G. Buche, and J. Grizzle, “Experimental Validation of a Framework for the Design of Controllers that Induce Stable Walking in Planar Bipeds,” The Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.23, No.6, pp. 559-582, 2004.
-  I. R. Manchester, U. Mettin, F. Iida, and R. Tedrake, “Stable dynamic walking over uneven terrain,” The Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.30, No.3, pp. 265-279, 2011.
-  C. Chevallereau, J. W. Grizzle, and C.-L. Shih, “Asymptotically Stable Walking of a Five-Link Underactuated 3-D Bipedal Robot,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics, Vol.25, No.1, pp. 37-50, 2009.
-  G. Song and M. Zefran, “Underactuated Dynamic Three-Dimensional Bipedal Walking,” In Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 854-859, 2006.
-  H. Miura and I. Shimoyama, “Dynamic Walking of a biped,” The Int. Journal of Robotics Research, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 60-74, 1984.
-  M. Doi, Y. Hasegawa, and T. Fukuda, “Passive Dynamic Autonomous Control of Bipedal Walking,” In Proc. of the IEEE/RAS Int. Conf. on Humanoid Robots, pp. 811-829, 2004.
-  T. Fukuda, M. Doi, Y. Hasegawa, and H. Kajima, “Fast Motions in Biomechanics And Robotics: Optimization And Feedback Control,” chapter Multi-Locomotion Control of Biped Locomotion and Brachiation Robot, pp. 121-145, Springer-Verlag, 2006.
-  T. Aoyama, Y. Hasegawa, K. Sekiyama, and T. Fukuda, “Stabilizing and Direction Control of Efficient 3-D Biped Walking Based on PDAC,” IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, Vol.14, No.6, pp. 712-718, 2009.
-  T. Fukuda, T. Aoyama, Y. Hasegawa, and K. Sekiyama, “Artificial Life Models in Hardware,” chapter Multilocomotion Robot: Novel Concept, Mechanism, and Control of Bio-inspired Robot, pp. 65-86, Springer-Verlag, 2009.
-  K. Hashimoto, Y. Sugahara, H.-O. Lim, and A. Takanishi, “Biped Landing Pattern Modification Method and Walking Experiments in Outdoor Environment,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.20, No.5, pp. 775-784, 2008.
Copyright© 2012 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.