Cooperation Between a High-Power Robot and a Human by Functional Safety
Masahiro Morioka*, Satoshi Adachi*, Shinsuke Sakakibara*,
Jeffrey Too Chuan Tan**, Ryu Kato***, and Tamio Arai**
*FANUC CORPORATION, Oshino-mura, Yamanashi 401-0597, Japan
**The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
***The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
In industrialized countries, high wages, a declining number of skilled workers, and other issues, have led to a need for the establishment of new highefficiency and high-reliability production systems capable of maintaining high international competitiveness. This particular issue could be addressed with a form of human-robot cooperative production (in which the robot provides supplementary support so that the human operator can devote him- or herself to highly difficult, high-value-added work), which requires the establishment of technologies for ensuring human safety. In this research, the authors propose the application of functional safety that is realized by combining position, speed, and force monitoring, and the authors have realized cooperation between a human operator and an inherently high-speed, highpower robot, as well as cooperative work implemented by a human operator while touching an automatically operated robot.
Jeffrey Too Chuan Tan, Ryu Kato, and Tamio Arai, “Cooperation Between a High-Power Robot and a Human by Functional Safety,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.23, No.6, pp. 926-938, 2011.
-  S. Seki, “One by One Production in the ‘Digital Yatai’ - Practical Use of 3D - CAD Data in the Fabrication,” J. Japan Soc. Mechanical Engineering, Vol.106, No.1013, pp. 32-36, 2003.
-  ISO10218, “Manipulating industrial robots - Safety,” 1992.
-  ISO10218-1, “Robots for industrial environments - Safety requirements - Part 1: Robot,” 2006.
-  J. Krüger, B. Nickolay, P. Heyer, and G. Seliger, “Image based 3D Survaillance for flexible Man-Robot-Cooperation,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol.54, pp. 13-23, 2005.
-  B. Winkler, “Safe Space Sharing Human-Robot Cooperation Using a 3D Time-of-Flight Camera,” In: Robotic Industries Association: Int. Robots & Vision Show: Technical Conference Proc., June 12-14, 2007.
-  H. Kazerooni, “Human robot interaction via the transfer of power and information signals,” IEEE Trans. on SMC, Vol.20, No.2, pp. 450-463, 1990.
-  T. Takubo, H. Arai, Y. Hayashibara, and K. Tanie, “Human-Robot Cooperative Manipulation Using a Virtual Nonholonomic Constraint,” Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.21, No.5, pp. 541-553, 2002.
-  H. Konosu, I. Araki, and Y. Yamada, “Practical Development of Skill-Assist,” J. of Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.22, No.4, pp. 508-514, 2004.
-  H. Murayama, N. Takesue, K. Matsumoto, H. Konosu, and H. Fujimoto, “Development of a Car Window Installation Assist Robot,” J. of Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.28, No5, pp. 624-630, 2010.
-  Y. Akamatsu and T. Nakamira, “Development of Manipulator with Flexible Joint Using Smart Fluid,” Proc. of the Japan Fluid Power System Society, pp. 25-27, May 2006.
-  H. Ikeda and T. Saito, “Proposal of Inherently Safe Design Method and Safe Design Indexes for Human-collaborative Robots,” Specific Research Reports of the National Institute of Industrial Safety, NIIS-SRR-NO.33, pp. 5-13, 2005.
-  ISO/TR14121-2, “Safety of machinery - Risk assessment - Part 2: Practical guidance and examples of methods,” 2007.
-  ISO13849-1, “Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 1: General principles for design,” 2006.
-  T. Saito and H. Ikeda, “Measurement of Human Pain Tolerance to Mechanical Stimulus of Human collaborative Robots,” Specific Research Reports of the National Institute of Industrial Safety, NI-ISSRR-NO.33, pp. 15-23, 2005.
-  “BG/BGIA risk assessment recommendations according to machinery directive - Design of workplaces with collaborative robots,” U 001/2009e October 2009 edition, 2009.
-  ISO13854, “Safety of machinery - Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body,” 1996.
-  T. Arai, R. Kato and M. Fujita, “Assessment of operator stress induced by robot collaboration in assembly,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol.59, Issue 1, pp, 5-8, 2010.
- [a] http://www.abb.com/product/seitp327/ec6cfad87f69dd2dc12572d300775f5b.aspx
- [b] http://www.pilz.com/products/sensors/camera/f/safetyeye/index.jsp.
- [c] http://nextage.kawada.jp/
- [d] http://www.keyence.co.jp/switch/safety/sz/
Supporting Online Materials:
Copyright© 2011 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.