Unified Robot Control Scheme for Cooperative Motion, Autonomous Motion and Contact Reaction
Vincent Duchaine* and Clément Gosselin**
*Department of Automated Manufacturing Engineering, École de Technologie Supérieure, 1100 Rue, Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal, H3C 1K3, Canada
**Department of Mechanical Engineering, Université Laval, 1065 Avenue de la médecine, Québec, Qc, G1V 0A6, Canada
While the majority of industrial manipulators currently in use only need to performautonomousmotion, future generations of cooperative robots will also have to execute cooperative motion and intelligently react to contacts. These extended behaviours are essential to enable safe and effective physical Human-Robot Interaction (pHRI). However, they will inevitably result in an increase of the controller complexity. This paper presents a single variable admittance control scheme that handles the three modes of operation, thereby minimizing the complexity of the controller. First, the adaptative admittance controller previously proposed by the authors for cooperative motion is recalled. Then, a novel implementation of variable admittance control for the generation of smooth autonomous motion including reaction to collisions anywhere on the robot is presented. Finally, it is shown how the control equations for these three modes of operation can be simply unified into a unique control scheme.
-  R. Kumar, P. Berkelman, P. Gupta, A. Barnes, P. Jensen, L. Whitcomb, and R. Taylor, “Preliminary experiments in cooperative human/robot force control for robot assisted microsurgical manipulation,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.1, pp. 610-617, 2000.
-  N. Roy, G. Baltus, D. Fox, F. Gemperle, J. Goetz, T. Hirsch, D. Magaritis, M. Montemerlo, J. Pineau, J. Schulte et al., “Towards personal service robots for the elderly,” in Proc. of the Workshop on Interactive Robotics and Entertainment (WIRE), 2000.
-  J. Colgate, M. Peshkin, and S. Klostermeyer, “Intelligent assist devices in industrial applications: a review,” in 2003 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2003 (IROS 2003), Proc., Vol.3, 2003.
-  A. De Santis, B. Siciliano, A. De Luca, and A. Bicchi, “An atlas of physical human-robot interaction,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol.43, No.3, pp. 253-270, 2008.
-  S. Haddadin, A. Albu-Schaffer, and G. Hirzinger, “Safety evaluation of physical human-robot interaction via crash-testing,” in Robotics: Science and Systems Conf. (RSS2007), 2007.
-  R. Ikeura, H. Monden, and H. Inooka, “Cooperative motion control of a robot and a human,” in 3rd IEEE Int. Workshop on Robot and Human Communication 1994 (RO-MAN’94), Nagoya, Proc., pp. 112-117, 1994.
-  A. Edsinger and C. Kemp, “Human-robot interaction for cooperative manipulation: Handing objects to one another,” in Proc. of the 16th IEEE Int. Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), Citeseer, 2007.
-  A. De Luca, A. Albu-Schaffer, S. Haddadin, and G. Hirzinger, “Collision detection and safe reaction with the DLR-III lightweight manipulator arm,” in 2006 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 1623-1630, 2006.
-  V. Duchaine and C. Gosselin, “Safe, Stable and Intuitive Control for Physical Human-Robot Interaction,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, 2009 (ICRA 2009), pp. 3606-3611, 2009.
-  D. Surdilovic, “Contact stability issues in position based impedance control: Theory and experiments,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.4, pp. 1675-1681, 1996.
-  S. Arimoto, M. Sekimoto, H. Hashiguchi, and R. Ozawa, “Natural resolution of ill-posedness of inverse kinematics for redundant robots: a challenge to Bernstein’s degrees-of-freedom problem,” Advanced Robotics, Vol.19, No.4, pp. 401-434, 2005.
-  H. Gomi and R. Osui, “Task-dependent viscoelasticity of human multijoint arm and its spatial characteristics for interaction with environments,” J. Neuroscience, Vol.21, pp. 8965-8978, 1998.
-  F. Lacquaniti, F. Licata, and J. Soechting, “The mechanical behavior of the human forearm in response to transient perturbations,” Biological Cybernetics, Vol.44, No.1, pp. 35-46, 1982.
-  R. Kearney and I. Hunter, “System identification of human joint dynamics,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., Vol.18, No.1, pp. 55-87, 1990.
-  M. Rahman, R. Ikeura, and K. Mitzutani, “Investigating the impedance characteristic of human arm for development of robots to cooperate with human operators,” Proc. IEEE Int Conf. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol.2, pp. 676-681, 1999.
-  K. Yamada, K. Goto, Y. Nakajima, N. Koshida, and H. Shinoda, “A sensor skin using wire-free tactile sensing elements based on optical connection,” 41st SICE Annual Conf., Vol.1, 2002.
-  M. Shimojo, A. Namiki, M. Ishikawa, R. Makino, and K. Mabuchi, “A tactile sensor sheet using pressure conductive rubber with electrical-wires stitched method,” Sensors Journal, IEEE, Vol.4, No.5, pp. 589-596, 2004.
-  J. Engel, J. Chen, and C. Liu, “Development of polyimide flexible tactile sensor skin,” J. of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol.13, No.3, pp. 359-366, 2003.
-  T. Someya, T. Sekitani, S. Iba, Y. Kato, H. Kawaguchi, and T. Sakurai, “A large-area, flexible pressure sensor matrix with organic fieldeffect transistors for artificial skin applications,” Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol.101, No.27, p. 9966, 2004.
-  Y. Nakamura, “Advanced robotics: redundancy and optimization.” Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc. Boston, MA, USA, 1990.
-  V. Duchaine and C. Gosselin, “General Model of Human-Robot Cooperation Using a Novel Velocity Based Variable Impedance Control,” World Haptics 2007, pp. 446-451, 2007.
-  V. Duchaine and C. Gosselin, “Investigation of human-robot interaction stability using Lyapunov theory,” Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation 2008, pp. 2189-2194, 2008.
-  C. M. Gosselin, X. Kong, S. Foucault, and B. Ilian, “A fully decoupled 3-dof translational parallel mechanism,” Parallel Kinematic Machines Int. Conf., pp. 595-610, 2004.
-  V. Duchaine, N. Lauzier, M. Lacasse, M. Baril, and C. Gosselin, “A Flexible Robot Skin for Safe Physical Human Robot Interaction,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation 2009 (ICRA 2009), pp. 3606-3611, 2009.
-  Y. Yamada, Y. Hirasawa, S. Huang, Y. Umetani, and K. Suita, “Human-robot contact in the safeguarding space,” IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, Vol.2, No.4, pp. 230-236, 1997.
-  S. Haddadin, A. Albu-Schaffer, A. De Luca, and G. Hirzinger, “Collision detection and reaction: A contribution to safe physical human-robot interaction,” in Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Nice, France, 2008.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright© 2011 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.