Possibility of Head-Shape Simplification for an Acoustical Telepresence Robot: TeleHead
Iwaki Toshima* and Shigeaki Aoki**
*NTT Communication Science Laboratory
**Kanazawa Institute of Technology
We built an acoustical telepresence robot named TeleHead. TeleHead has a user-like dummy head and is synchronized with the user’s head movement in real time. The user-like dummy head improves sound localization accuracy. However, making a user-like dummy head for each user is not realistic from the viewpoint of engineering. Therefore, we made several kinds of simplified dummy head and examined their influence on sound localization. The results show that, among the dummy heads tested, the user-like dummy head is the best one for sound localization experiments. When subjects used a simple rugby-ball-like dummy head, they could not localize sound at all. The results suggest that an accurate dummy head improves sound localization accuracy and point to the possibility of simplifying dummy heads for practical use in sound localization.
-  R. M. Held and N. I. Durlach, “Telepresence,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol.1, pp. 109-112, 1992.  I. Toshima, H. Uematsu, and T. Hirahara, “A steerable dummy head that tracks three-dimensional head movement: TeleHead,” Acoustical Science and Technology, Vol.24, No.5, pp. 327-329, 2003. (Online free site, http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ast/24/5/327/_pdf) I. Toshima, S. Aoki, and T. Hirahara, “Sound Localization Using an Acoustical Telepresence Robot: TeleHead II,” Presence, Vol.17, No.4, pp. 392-404, 2008.  J. Blauert, “Spacial hearing: The psychophysics of human sound localization,” MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1997.  H. Moller, M. F. Sorensen, D. Hammershoi, and C. B. Jensen, “Head-Related Transfer Functions of Human Subjects,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol.43, pp. 300-321, 1995.  H. Wallach, “On sound localization,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.10, pp. 270-274, 1939.  F. L. Wightman and D. J. Kistler, “Resolution of front-back ambiguity in spatial hearing by listener and source movement,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.105, No.5, pp. 2841-2853, 1999.  E. M. Wenzel, “Localization in virtual acoustical display,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol.1, pp. 80-107, 1992.  W. E. Kock, “Binaural Localization and Masking,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol.22, No.6, pp. 801-804, 1950.  D. N. Zotkin, R. Duraiswami, and L. S. Davis, “Rendering localized spatial audio in a virtual auditory space,” IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, Vol.6, No.4, pp. 553-564, 2004.  V. R. Algazi, R. O. Duda, and D. M. Thompson, “Motion-Tracked Binaural Sound,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, Vol.52, No.11, pp. 1142-1156, 2004.  K. A. J. Riederer, “Repeatability analysis of head-related transfer function measurements,” 105th Audio Eng. Soc., Audio Engineering Society, No.4846, 1998.  D. N. Zotokin, R. Duraiswami, E. Grassi, and N. A. Gumerov, “Fast head-related transfer function measurement via reciprocity,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.120, pp. 2202-2215, 2006.  T. Nishino, M. Ikeda, K. Takeda, and F. Itakura, “Interpolating Head Related Transfer Functions,” The seventh western pacific regional acoustics conf., pp. 293-296, 2000.  D. W. Grantham, J. A. Willhite, K. D. Frampton, and D. H. Ashmead, “Reduced order modeling of head related impulse response for virtual acoustic displays,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.117, pp. 3116-3125, 2005.  B. F. G. Katz, “Boundary element method calculation of individual head-related transfer function,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.110, No.5, pp. 2440-2448, 2001.  M. Otani and T. Hirahara, “Numerical Study on Source Distance Dependency of Head-Related Transfer Functions,” Proc. of 19th Int. Congress on Acoustics, PPA-05-017, 2007.  J. C. Middlebrooks, “Individual differences in external-ear transfer functions reduced by scaling in frequency,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol.106, No.3, pp. 1480-1492, 1999.  J. C. Middlebrooks, “Virtual localization improved by scaling nonindividualized external-ear transfer functions in frequency,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol.106, No.3, pp. 1493-1510, 1999.  J. B. Melick, V. R. Algazi, R. O. Duda, and D. M. Thompson, “Customization for personalized rendering of motion-tracked binaural sound,” 117th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, Paper 6255, 2004.  M. Pauli, F. M. Sorensen, O. Krarup, C. Flemming, and H. Moller, “Localization with Binaural Recordings from Artificial and Human Heads,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol.49, pp. 323-336, 2001.  D. W. Grantham, J. A. Willhite, K. D. Frampton, and D. H. Ashmead, “Reduced order modeling of head related impulse response for virtual acoustic displays,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol.117, pp. 3116-3125, 2005.  I. Toshima, S. Aoki, and T. Hirahara, “An acoustical tele-presence robot: TeleHead II,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2004 (IROS2004), pp. 2105-2110, 2004.
Copyright© 2009 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.