single-dr.php

JDR Vol.18 No.1 pp. 69-74
(2023)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2023.p0069

Review:

Brief Epidemiological Consideration on the COVID-19 Pandemic

Sumio Shinoda

Collaborative Research Center of Okayama University for Infectious Disease in India, Okayama University
Tsushimanaka, Kita-ku, Okayama, Okayama 7000-8530, Japan

Corresponding author

Received:
October 11, 2022
Accepted:
November 30, 2022
Published:
January 20, 2023
Keywords:
COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, pandemic, epidemiology
Abstract

Three years have passed since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the pandemic has slowed down gradually, the situation is not yet stable. Since COVID-19 has spread mainly in developed European and American countries, it is considered to be said a peculiar infectious disease. It has a significant impact on medical systems in developed countries in across the globe. In the past three years, the COVID-19 epidemic has changed gradually, both globally and regionally.

Cite this article as:
S. Shinoda, “Brief Epidemiological Consideration on the COVID-19 Pandemic,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.18, No.1, pp. 69-74, 2023.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] C. Huang et al., “Clinical futures of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China,” Lancet, Vol.395, No.10223, pp. 497-506, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
  2. [2] X. Xu et al., “Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission,” Sci. China Life Sci., Vol.63, No.3, pp. 457-460, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5
  3. [3] D. S. Hui et al., “The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health — The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan China,” Int. J. Infect. Dis., Vol.91, pp. 264-266, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009
  4. [4] C. Drosten et al., “Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.348, No.20, pp. 1967-1976, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa030747
  5. [5] T. G. Ksiazek et al., “A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.348, No.20, pp. 1953-1966, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa030781
  6. [6] B. Young, T. T. Tan, and Y. S. Leo, “The place for remdesivir in COVID-19 treatment,” Lancet Infect. Dis., Vol.21, No.1, pp. 20-21, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30911-7
  7. [7] O. S. Reddy and W.-F. Lai, “Tackling COVID-19 using remdesivir and favipiravir as therapeutic options,” ChemBioChem, Vol.22, No.6, pp. 939-948, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202000595
  8. [8] A. J. Bernal et al., “Molnupiravir for oral treatment of Covid-19 in nonhospitalized patients,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.386, No.6, pp. 509-520, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2116044
  9. [9] M. Gavriatopoulou et al., “Emerging treatment strategies for COVID-19 infection,” Clin. Exp. Med., Vol.21, No.2, pp. 167-179, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10238-020-00671-y
  10. [10] H. X. J. Lin et al., “Remdesivir in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment: A review of evidence,” Infection, Vol.49, No.3, pp. 401-410, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01557-7
  11. [11] S. Shinoda, “Epidemiology of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and several remarkable pandemics,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.1, pp. 97-109, 2021. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2021.p0097
  12. [12] S. Shinoda, “COVID-19 and Spanish flu, the representative pandemics of the 21st and 20th Centuries,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.17, No.1, pp. 65-72, 2022. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2022.p0065
  13. [13] https://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/0000164708_00001.html [Accessed September 15, 2022]
  14. [14] https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/special/coronavirus/data-all/ [Accessed September 10, 2022]
  15. [15] E. Gohda, “Effectiveness of and immune response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines and their mechanisms,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.17, No.1, pp. 7-20, 2022. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2022.p0007
  16. [16] M. D. Knoll and C. Wonodi, “Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine efficacy,” Lancet, Vol.397, No.10269, pp. 72-74, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32623-4
  17. [17] R. N. Kostoff, M. B. Briggs, A. L. Porter, D. A. Spandidos, and A. Tsatsakis, “[Comment] COVID-19 vaccine safety,” Int. J. Mol. Med., Vol.46, No.5, pp. 1599-1602, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4733
  18. [18] S. Wack, T. Patton, and L. K. Ferris, “COVID-19 vaccine safety and efficacy in patients with immune-mediated disease: Review of available evidence,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., Vol.85, No.5, pp. 1274-1284, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.054
  19. [19] F. P. Polack et al., “Safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.383, No.27, pp. 2603-2615, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2034577

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Feb. 01, 2023