Promoting Coherence Among Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation, and Sustainable Development for Disaster Resilience
National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED)
3-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0006, Japan
Post-2015 global agendas; namely the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, the Paris Agreement, and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (including Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)), pose a challenge to the coherence among Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and Sustainable Development to achieve the common goal; disaster resilience. These agendas are more outcome-oriented with monitoring mechanisms than previous ones and require a coherent multi-stakeholder, cross-sectoral approach across government levels. Above all, the global indicators for monitoring the Sendai Framework have been adopted as SDG indicators in Goals 1, 11, and 13. Interlinkages between DRR, climate change, and sustainable development are observed from the integrated monitoring of agendas, which enhances coordination and coherence. Disaggregated data have revealed that major disaster mortality and economic losses in recent years have been triggered by weather-, climate-, and water-related disasters. More detailed data support evidence-based policymaking and promote coherence. To achieve Target E of the Sendai Framework, countries are developing DRR strategies to promote policy coherence with sustainable development and climate change. Both the number of national DRR strategies and alignment scores have increased over the years. DRR strategies and national adaptation plans (NAPs) should adopt a risk-informed, integrated approach to sustainable development through comprehensive planning and implementation. To achieve disaster resilience, national plans in these domains should be better integrated to maximize the effectiveness of actions toward disaster resilience and passed on to the sub-national level for implementation as place-based policies. Japanese experiences toward disaster resilience highlight interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary approaches by various stakeholders with technological innovation, which presents promising progress.
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