Continuously Operable Simulator and Forecasting the Deposition of Volcanic Ash from Prolonged Eruptions at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan
Masato Iguchi*,, Haruhisa Nakamichi*, Kosei Takishita*,**, and Alexandros P. Poulidis***
*Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University
1722-19 Sakurajima-Yokoyama-cho, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 891-1419, Japan
**Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
***Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
At Sakurajima volcano, frequent Vulcanian eruptions have been seen at the summit crater of Minamidake since 1955. In addition to this eruption style, the eruptive activities of Strombolian type and prolonged ash emission also occur frequently. We studied the design of a simulator of advection-diffusion-fallout of volcanic ash emitted continuously. The time function of volcanic ash eruption rate is given by a linear combination of the volcanic tremor amplitude and the volume change of the pressure source obtained from the ground motion. The simulation is repeated using discretized values of the eruption rate time function at an iteration time interval of the simulation. The integrated value of the volcanic ash deposition on the ground obtained from each individual simulation is used to estimate the value of the ash fallout. The plume height is given by an empirical equation proportional to a quarter of the power of the eruption rate. Since the wind velocity field near the volcano is complicated by the influence of the volcanic topography, the predicted values published by meteorological organizations are made in high resolution by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) for the simulation. We confirmed that an individual simulation can be completed within a few minutes of iteration interval time, using the PUFF model as the Lagrangian method and FALL3D-8.0 as the Eulerian method on a general-purpose PC. Except during rainfall, the radar reflectivity, the count of particles per particle size, and fall velocity obtained by the disdrometers can be used for the quasi-real time matching of the plume height calculated from the eruption rate and the ash fall deposition rate obtained from the simulation.
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