A Simple Method for the Analysis of Fumarolic Gases Using Response-Adjusted Sensors with a UAV
Kouki Matsu’ura*, Akihiko Terada*,, Toshiya Mori**, and Takato Ono**
*Volcanic Fluid Research Center, School of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology
2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan
**Geochemical Research Center, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology have made it possible to measure gas compositions in volcanic plumes using lightweight compact gas sensors. However, the differences in the responses of each gas sensor can be critical in estimating gas compositions based on regression scatter plots, particularly for small plumes emitted during volcanic unrest and non-eruption periods. Based on the laboratory experiments, we show that air blowers easily adjust sensor responses and improve correlation on regression scatter plots, allowing quick composition estimates without the use of mathematical applications. Applying our measurement system, lightweight compact gas sensors for H2S, SO2, CO2, and H2O, with air blowers suspended from a UAV, were used to determine the compositions of a small plume at Io-yama, Kirishima volcano, Japan. The compositions of the plume estimated by our system were reasonably consistent with those obtained by laboratory analysis of volcanic gas collected at ground level near the vent, with fluctuations in CO2 ratios and lower H2O ratios, relative to other gases, being observed. For more accurate estimations of CO2 and H2O concentrations, low humidity conditions at a distance from the fumarole are preferable for analysis of plumes diluted by ambient dry air. Our measurement system is simple, easy to set up, and useful for estimating the compositions of small passive fumarolic gas plumes during volcanic unrest and non-eruption periods, without mathematical applications.
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