Extreme Solar Flare as a Catastrophic Risk
Hiroaki Isobe*,, Takuya Takahashi**, Daikichi Seki*, and Yosuke Yamashiki*
*Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University
1 Nakaadachi-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8306, Japan
**Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Space weather, or the disturbances of the plasma environment driven by the magnetic activities in the Sun in geospace, has become a potential source of disaster for modern society, which is increasingly dependent on its space infrastructure and large-scale power grids. Recently, independent pieces of evidence have been found that support the possibility of extremely intense space weather driven by a “superflare,” a solar phenomenon that modern society has never experienced. This paper reviews state-of-art studies of superflares and their potential impacts.
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