single-dr.php

JDR Vol.17 No.2 pp. 183-196
(2022)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2022.p0183

Paper:

Support That Disaster Victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Felt and Considerations on How to Formulate Measures for Disaster Management in the Future – Based on a Comparison with the 1995 Great Hanshin Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake, the 2004 Mid-Niigata Earthquake and the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake

Reo Kimura

School and Graduate School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo
1-1-12 Shinzaike-honcho, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092, Japan

Corresponding author

Received:
April 2, 2021
Accepted:
April 27, 2021
Published:
February 1, 2022
Keywords:
large-scale random sampled social survey, supporters at the time of disaster, division of roles
Abstract

In this study, the results of a large-scale random sampled questionnaire survey of the disaster victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake are summarized. This survey was conducted during the period between March and June 2016, five years after the earthquake disaster, and included all men and women of age 20 and older who resided in the three disaster-stricken prefectures that suffered significant damage. In this study, the situation at the time of the disaster and the effective measures for disaster management in the future are examined through two questions: “Who does the disaster victims rely on for life recovery?” and “Based on this experience, who should responsibly implement the measures for disaster management in the future?” The results of these large-scale random sampled questionnaire surveys for the disasters in the past are referenced to compare the 1995 Great Hanshin Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake, the 2004 Mid-Niigata Earthquake, and the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake. Analysis of the question, “Which persons and organizations (supporters) were relied upon in life recovery?” shows that three persons and organizations, including, a partner, children, and the town or city administration, are relied upon in all the aspects of personal or emotional, material or financial, and vital information. From all generations and kinds of supporters, people sixty and over constitute the demographic from which the least support is expected. For this generation. the family of a partner, children, mutual assistance from community associations and governmental assistance from the town/city administration are considered as the common support in all aspects. Then, comparing this with other earthquake disasters showed that a quick and careful response to all the earthquake victims by the administrative organizations is limited in large cities where relations between organizations and locals cannot be evaluated and expected. In the analysis of the question, “Who should implement the measures for disaster management in a responsible way?” it is made clear that the division of roles among self-help, mutual assistance, and governmental assistance can be summarized in the following four patterns: Mainly by governmental assistance, mainly by self-help, in cooperation with mutual assistance and governmental assistance, and in cooperation with of self-help, mutual assistance, and governmental assistance, altogether. Comparisons between all the earthquake disasters, lead to the understanding that the disaster victims who experienced a large-scale disaster consider that the measures for disaster management should be implemented by through self-help, mutual assistance, and governmental assistance, altogether, regardless of the disaster and local characteristics. In Japanese society it seems that the division of roles among self-help, mutual assistance, and governmental assistance could generally be proposed.

Cite this article as:
Reo Kimura, “Support That Disaster Victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Felt and Considerations on How to Formulate Measures for Disaster Management in the Future – Based on a Comparison with the 1995 Great Hanshin Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake, the 2004 Mid-Niigata Earthquake and the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.17, No.2, pp. 183-196, 2022.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] Fire and Disaster Management Agency, Japan, “The 2011 Earthquake Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku (the Great East Japan Earthquake),” No.153, March 8, 2016, https://www.fdma.go.jp/disaster/higashinihon/assets/jishin153.pdf (in Japanese) [accessed October 1, 2020]
  2. [2] Reconstruction Agency, “Current Situation of Reconstruction (as of March, 2016),” 2016, https://www.reconstruction.go.jp/topics/main-cat7/sub-cat7-2/201603_pamphlet.pdf (in Japanese) [accessed October 1, 2020]
  3. [3] R. Kimura, H. Hayashi, K. Tamura, S. Tatsuki, T. Noda, K. Yamori, A. Kuromiya, and Y. Urata, “Developing Victims’ Life Reconstruction Indicators by Social Survey – Ten Years Monitoring in the Great Hanshin-Awaji(Kobe) Earthquake Disaster –,” J. of Social Safety Science, No.8, pp. 415-424, 2006 (in Japanese).
  4. [4] R. Kimura, K. Tamura, M. Inoguchi, H. Hayashi, and Y. Urata, “Generalization of victims’ behavior and life reconstruction processes Socio-economic recovery from three earthquake disasters occurred in Hyogo Prefecture in 1995, Niigata Prefecture in 2004 and 2007 –,” J. of Social Safety Science, No.13, pp. 175-185, 2010 (in Japanese).
  5. [5] R. Kimura, M. Inoguchi, K. Tamura, and H. Hayashi, “Comparison Between the Life Recovery Processes After the Mid-Niigata Earthquake and the Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake – Results of a Random Sampled Social Survey Using the Life Recovery Calendar and GIS-Based Spatiotemporal Analysis,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10, No.2, pp. 196-203, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2015.p0196, 2015.
  6. [6] K. Tamura, S. Tatsuki, and H. Hayashi, “The External Validity of Life Recovery Tasks and their Structure among the Disaster Victims of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake,” J. of Social Safety Science, No.2, pp. 25-32, 2000 (in Japanese).
  7. [7] R. Kimura, H. Hayashi, and K. Tamura, “Which Persons and Organizations will be Relied upon the Most in the Case of the Next Major Disaster? -Results from the random sampled social surveys of the disaster victims of the 1995 Kobe earthquake and the 2004 Mid-Niigata earthquake disaster –,” Proc. of the 14th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, CD-ROM, 8pp., 2008.
  8. [8] R. Kimura, H. Hayashi, and K. Tamura, “Which Roles are Citizens and the Community to Play in the Field of Disaster Management? (Results from the Random Sampled Social Surveys to the Disaster Victims of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake and the 2004 Niigata Earthquake Disaster),” Proc. of 2nd Int. Conf. on Urban Disaster Reduction, CD-ROM, 6pp., 2007.
  9. [9] Hyogo Prefecture, “Socio-economic Recovery from the 1995 Hanashin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster – Report of Panel Survey 2005,” 2005 (in Japanese).
  10. [10] R. Kimura (Ed.), “Socio-economic Recovery from Two Earthquake Disasters Occurred in Niigata Prefecture in 2004 and 2007,” Social Disaster Research Center, Fuji Tokoha University, 2010 (in Japanese).

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on May. 20, 2022