single-dr.php

JDR Vol.17 No.1 pp. 73-81
(2022)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2022.p0073

Review:

The Importance of Monitoring Viral Respiratory Infections During the COVID-19 Crisis

Itsuki Hamamoto* and Noriko Shimasaki**,†

*Influenza and Respiratory Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID)
4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan

**Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo, Japan

Corresponding author

Received:
October 15, 2021
Accepted:
December 13, 2021
Published:
January 30, 2022
Keywords:
COVID-19, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, viral interference
Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a new, infectious, pneumonia-like disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has continued to spread rapidly worldwide, even in 2021. The COVID-19 outbreak has brought about some changes in influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus infections, which were previously the main causes of viral pneumonia. This review discusses the epidemiology of these infectious diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although influenza cases have been substantially decreasing worldwide, RSV infection cases, which had temporarily decreased initially, have started to increase again, and rhinovirus infection cases have been reported to be higher than usual. The authors reviewed the viral interferences among these infections in detail because they could exert considerable effect on epidemiological surveillance data. Based on experimental data, a recent study suggested that the influenza virus could promote SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. A previous study reported that influenza A virus inhibits RSV replication in an animal model. Another recent study revealed that although the replication of rhinovirus is not affected by SARS-CoV-2, the replication of SARS-CoV-2 is inhibited by rhinovirus, indicating that rhinovirus infection protects against SARS-CoV-2. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the activity of these viruses.

Cite this article as:
Itsuki Hamamoto and Noriko Shimasaki, “The Importance of Monitoring Viral Respiratory Infections During the COVID-19 Crisis,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.17, No.1, pp. 73-81, 2022.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] WHO, “Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19 – 28 September 2021,” Edition 59, https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update-on-COVID-19—28-september-2021 [accessed October 4, 2021]
  2. [2] NHK coronavirus data, https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/special/coronavirus/data/rules.html (in Japanese) [accessed September 30, 2021]
  3. [3] N. Shimasaki and H. Morikawa, “Prevention of COVID-19 Infection with Personal Protective Equipment,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.1, pp. 61-69, 2021.
  4. [4] N. Kaku, K. Hashiguchi, Y. Iwanaga, N. Akamatsu, J. Matsuda, K. Kosai, N. Uno, Y. Morinaga, T. Kitazaki, H. Hasegawa, T. Miyazaki, M. Fukuda, K. Izumikawa, H. Mukae, and K. Yanagihara, “Evaluation of FilmArray respiratory panel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of pathogens in adult outpatients with acute respiratory tract infection,” J. Infect. Chemother., Vol.24, No.9, pp. 734-738, 2018.
  5. [5] S. Jain, W. H. Self, R. G. Wunderink, S. Fakhran, R. Balk, A. M. Bramley, C. Reed, C. G. Grijalva, E. J. Anderson, D. M. Courtney, J. D. Chappell, C. Qi, E. M. Hart, F. Carroll, C. Trabue, H. K. Donnelly, D. J. Williams, Y. Zhu, S. R. Arnold, K. Ampofo, G. W. Waterer, M. Levine, S. Lindstrom, J. M. Winchell, J. M. Katz, D. Erdman, E. Schneider, L. A. Hicks, J. A. McCullers, A. T. Pavia, K. M. Edwards, and L. Finelli; CDC EPIC Study Team, “Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. adults,” New Engl. J. Med., Vol.373, No.5, pp. 415-427, 2015.
  6. [6] N. Jones, “How COVID-19 is changing the cold and flu season,” Nature, Vol.588, No.7838, pp. 388-390, 2020.
  7. [7] A. Wu, V. T. Mihaylova, M. L. Landry, and E. F. Foxman, “Interference between rhinovirus and influenza A virus: a clinical data analysis and experimental infection study,” Lancet Microbe, Vol.1, No.6, pp. E254-E262, 2020.
  8. [8] World Health Organization (WHO), “Fact sheets/Detail/Influenza (Seasonal), 6 November 2018,” https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(seasonal) [accessed September 28, 2021]
  9. [9] N. Shimasaki, A. Okaue, R. Kikuno, and K. Shinohara, “Comparison of the filter efficiency of medical nonwoven fabrics against three different microbe aerosols,” Biocontrol Sci., Vol.23, No.2, pp. 61-69, 2018.
  10. [10] National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Infectious Diseases Weekly Report (IDWR), “Trend Graph (Weekly Report) – Comparison with past ten years, Influenza,” https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/en/10/2096-weeklygraph/1644-01flu.html [accessed September 30, 2021]
  11. [11] WHO, “Influenza Update No.402,” 13 September 2021, based on data up to 29 August 2021, https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/influenza/influenza-updates/2021/2021_09_13_surveillance_update_402628d882e-bff2-4a04-aa95-f3814bc7c27e.pdf?sfvrsn=20039a7f_5 [accessed September 30, 2021]
  12. [12] K. L. Laurie and S. Rockman, “Which influenza viruses will emerge following the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic?,” Influenza Other Respi. Viruses, Vol.15, No.5, pp. 573-576, 2021.
  13. [13] G. Young, X. Peng, A. Rebeza, S. Bermejo, C. De, L. Sharma, and C. S. Dela Cruz, “Rapid decline of seasonal influenza during the outbreak of COVID-19,” ERJ Open Res., Vol.6, No.3, 00296-2020, 2020.
  14. [14] J. Stojanovic, V. G. Boucher, J. Boyle, J. Enticott, K. L. Lavoie, and S. L. Bacon, “COVID-19 Is Not the Flu: Four graphs From Four Countries,” Front Public Health, Vol.9, 628479, 2021.
  15. [15] S. J. Olsen, E. Azziz-Baumgartner, A. P. Budd, L. Brammer, S. Sullivan, R. F. Pineda, C. Cohen, and A. M. Fry, “Decreased influenza activity during the COVID-19 pandemic – United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Vol.69, No.37, pp. 1305-1309, 2020.
  16. [16] D. Cucinotta and M. Vanelli, “WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic,” Acta Biomed., Vol.91, No.1, pp. 157-160, 2020.
  17. [17] WHO, “2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan,” 2020.
  18. [18] WHO, “COVID-19 strategic preparedness and response plan (SPRP 2021),” 2021, https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-WHE-2021.02 [accessed October 14, 2021]
  19. [19] WHO, “Advice for the public: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19),” 2021, https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public [accessed October 14, 2021]
  20. [20] N. Manikandan, “Are social distancing, hand washing and wearing masks appropriate measures to mitigate transmission of COVID-19?,” Vacunas, Vol.21, Vol.2, pp. 136-137, 2020.
  21. [21] R. A. Leslie, S. S. Zhou, and D. R. Macinga, “Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by commercially available alcohol-based hand sanitizers,” Am. J. Infect. Control., Vol.49, No.3, pp. 401-402, 2021.
  22. [22] C. C. Wang, K. A. Prather, J. Sznitman, J. L. Jimenez, S. S. Lakdawala, Z. Tufekci, and L. C. Marr, “Airborne transmission of respiratory viruses,” Science, Vol.373, No.6558, eabd9149, 2021.
  23. [23] N. H. L. Leung et al., “Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks,” Nat. Med., Vol.26, No.5, pp. 676-680, 2020.
  24. [24] L. J. Radonovich et al., “N95 Respirators vs Medical Masks for Preventing Influenza Among Health Care Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” JAMA, Vol.322, No.9, pp. 824-833, doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.11645, 2019.
  25. [25] WHO, “Readiness for influenza during the COVID-19 pandemic,” Policy Brief, November 6, 2020.
  26. [26] WHO, “7 Vaccines approved for use by WHO,” 2021, https://covid19.trackvaccines.org/agency/who/ [accessed October 14, 2021]
  27. [27] N. Kumar, S. Sharma, S. Barua, B. N. Tripathi, and B. T. Rouse, “Virological and Immunological Outcomes of Coinfections,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev., Vol.31, No.4, E00111-17, 2018.
  28. [28] C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla, “Mini Review: Virus Interference: History, Types and Occurrence in Crustaceans,” Front. Immunol., Vol.12, 674216, 2021.
  29. [29] F. Dianzani, “Viral interference and interferon,” Ric. Clin. Lab., Vol.5, No.3, pp. 196-213, 1975.
  30. [30] L. B. Ivashkiv and L. T. Donlin, “Regulation of type I interferon response,” Nat. Rev. Immunol., Vol.14, No.1, pp. 36-49, 2014.
  31. [31] P. I. Marcus and D. H. Carver, “Intrinsic interference: a new type of viral interference,” J. Virol., Vol.1, No.2, pp. 334-343, 1967.
  32. [32] L. Bai, Y. Zhao, J. Dong, S. Liang, M. Guo, X. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Sun, Z. Zhang, L. Dong, Q. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Niu, M. Xiang, K. Song, J. Ye, W. Zheng, Z. Tang, M. Tang, Y. Zhou, C. Shen, M. Dai, L. Zhou, Y. Chen, H. Yan, K. Lan, and K. Xu, “Co-infection of influenza A virus enhance SARS-CoV-2 infectivity,” Cell Res., Vol.31, No.4, pp. 395-403, 2021.
  33. [33] J.-Y. Peng, D.-L. Shin, G. Li, N.-H. Wu, and G. Herrier, “Time-dependent viral interference between influenza virus and coronavirus in the infection of differentiated porcine airway epithelial cells,” Virulence, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 1111-1121, 2021.
  34. [34] “Daily new confirmed COVID-19,” https://ourworldindata.org/covid-cases [accessed September 28, 2021]
  35. [35] WHO, “Guidelines on the quality, safety and efficacy of respiratory syncytial virus vaccines,” Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, 2019, https://www.who.int/biologicals/expert_committee/RSV_Guidelines_POST_ECBS.PDF [accessed October 10, 2021]
  36. [36] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Public health image library – human RSV,” https://phil.cdc.gov/Details.aspx?pid=2175 [accessed October 7, 2021]
  37. [37] NIID, IDWR, “Trend Graph (Weekly Report) – Comparison with past four years, RSV,” https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/ja/10/2096-weeklygraph/1661-21rsv.html [accessed October 14, 2021]
  38. [38] CDC, “Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) Prevention,” https://www.cdc.gov/rsv/about/prevention.html [accessed October 14, 2021]
  39. [39] I. Kuitunen, M. Artama, L. Mäkelä, K. Backman, T. Heiskanen-Kosma, and M. Renko, “Effect of social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of viral respiratory tract infections in children in Finland during early 2020,” Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., Vol.39, No.12, pp. e423-e427, 2020.
  40. [40] K. Wagatsuma, I. S. Koolhof, Y. Shobugawa, and R. Saito, “Decreased human respiratory syncytial virus activity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: an ecological time-series analysis,” BMC Infect. Dis., Vol.21, No.1, Article No.734, 2021.
  41. [41] R. Agha and J. R. Avner, “Delayed seasonal RSV surge observed during the COVID-19 pandemic,” Pediatrics, Vol.148, No.3, e2021052089, 2021.
  42. [42] M. Ujiie, S. Tsuzuki, T. Nakamoto, and N. Iwamoto, “Resurgence of respiratory syncytial virus infections during COVID-19 pandemic, Tokyo, Japan,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.27, No.11, pp. 2069-2970, 2021.
  43. [43] M. Essaidi-Laziosi, J. Geiser, S. Huang, S. Constant, L. Kaiser, and C. Tapparel, “Interferon-dependent and respiratory virus-specific interference in dual infections of airway epithelia,” Sci. Rep., Vol.10, No.1, 12523, 2020.
  44. [44] N. B. Achten, P. Wu, L. Bont, M. O. Blanken, T. Gebretsadik, J. D. Chappell, L. Wang, C. Yu, E. K. Larkin, K. N. Carroll, L. J. Anderson, M. L. Moore, C. D. Sloan, and T. V. Hertert, “Interference between respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus infection in infancy,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.215, No.7, pp. 1102-1106, 2017.
  45. [45] S. Karppinen, L. Toivonen, L. Schuez-Havupalo, M. Waris, and V. Peltola, “Interference between respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus in respiratory tract infections in children,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect., Vol.22, No.2, pp. 208.e1-208.e6, 2016.
  46. [46] M. Shinjoh, K. Omoe, N. Saito, N. Matsuo, and K. Nerome, “In vitro growth profiles of respiratory syncytial virus in the presence of influenza virus,” Acta. Virol., Vol.44, No.2, pp. 91-97, 2000.
  47. [47] Y. Li, X. Wang, T. Msosa, F. de Wit, J. Murdock, and H. Nair, “The impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic on the seasonality of human respiratory syncytial virus: A systematic analysis,” Influenza Other Respir. Viruses, Vol.15, No.6, pp. 804-812, 2021.
  48. [48] K. F. Chan, L. A. Carolan, D. Korenkov, J. Druce, J. McCaw, P. C. Reading, I. G. Barr, and K. L. Laurie, “Investigating viral interference between influenza A virus and human respiratory syncytial virus in a ferret model of infection,” The J. of Infectious Diseases, Vol.218, No.3, pp. 406-417, 2018.
  49. [49] CDC, “Common Colds: Protect Yourself and Others,” https://www.cdc.gov/features/rhinoviruses/index.html [accessed October 14, 2021]
  50. [50] G. Allmaier, D. Blaas, C. Bliem, T. Dechat, S. Fedosyuk, I. Gösler, H. Kowalski, and V. U. Weiss, “Monolithic anion-exchange chromatography yields rhinovirus of high purity,” J. Virol. Methods., Vol.251, pp. 15-21, 2018.
  51. [51] E. Takashita et al., “Increased risk of rhinovirus infection in children during the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic,” Influenza Other Respi. Viruses, Vol.15, No.4, pp. 488-494, 2021.
  52. [52] C. Savolainen-Lopra, T. Korpela, M. L. Simonen-Tikka, A. Amiryousefi, T. Ziegler, M. Roivainen, and T. Hovi, “Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus – hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently,” J. Med. Virol., Vol.84, No.3, pp. 543-547, 2012.
  53. [53] J. S. Kutter, M. I. Spronken, P. L. Fraaij, R. AM. Fouchier, and S. Herfst, “Transmission routes of respiratory viruses among humans,” Curr. Opin. Virol., Vol.28, pp. 142-151, 2018.
  54. [54] S. Kitanovski, G. Horemheb-Rubio, O. Adams, B. Gärtner, T. Lengauer, D. Hoffmann, R. Kaiser, and Respiratory Virus Network, “Rhinovirus prevalence as indicator for efficacy of measures against SARS-CoV-2,” BMC Public Health, Vol.21, No.1, Article No.1178, 2021.
  55. [55] K. Dee, D. M. Goldfarb, J. Haney, J. A. R. Amat, V. Herder, M. Stewart, A. M. Szemiel, M. Baguelin, and P. R. Murcia, “Human rhinovirus infection blocks severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication within the respiratory epithelium: Implications for COVID-19 epidemiology,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.224, No.1, pp. 31-38, 2021.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on May. 20, 2022